Causes of calcificationBecause of the rapid growth of cancer cells, the proliferation of blood vessels and fibrous tissue in the tumor, it i
Causes of calcification
Because of the rapid growth of cancer cells, the proliferation of blood vessels and fibrous tissue in the tumor, it is easy to cause calcium deposition. In addition, calcification is also caused by the secretion of some substances, such as glycoproteins and mucopolysaccharide.
Thyroid calcification can occur in malignant nodules, but also can occur in benign nodules, malignant nodules have a higher incidence of calcification, the former is 26%~54%, the latter is 8%~32%.
Microcalcification: multiple hyperechoic spots (less than 2 m m), clustered or scattered, with or without acoustic shadowing. When the micro calcification and coarse calcification exist in nodules, nodules are classified micro calcification type.
Coarse calcification: a strong echo spot with an internal greater than 2 mm.
Peripheral calcification: round calcification around the nodules, a ring or arc.
The isolated calcification: a single coarse calcification of thyroid nodules seen around the surrounding.
Relationship between calcification and benign and malignant nodules
Micro calcification in diagnosis of thyroid cancer is usually considered the most reliable indicators, basically can reflect the pathology of the sand body". The sand body is a characteristic manifestation of thyroid papillary carcinoma, psammoma bodies may also occur in thyroid follicular carcinoma, nodular goiter, thyroid follicular adenoma and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. The specificity, positive predictive value and sensitivity of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma were 85%~94%, 69%~71%, 36%~59%, respectively.
Peripheral calcification, coarse calcification, isolated calcification, is usually considered a diagnosis of thyroid benign tumor index in thyroid adenoma, nodular goiter and other benign diseases, however, the three can also occur in malignant nodules.
In conclusion, ultrasonography in calcification is a specific index for the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma, thyroid cancer screening from the point of view, each have the risk of malignant calcification, not only microcalcification, other types of calcification should be carefully examined.