Risk factors for urinary stone formation

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The etiology of urinary calculi is extremely complex. Because of urinary calculi in abnormal urine, clinically 24 hours urine examination as

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The etiology of urinary calculi is extremely complex. Because of urinary calculi in abnormal urine, clinically 24 hours urine examination as an important basis for the diagnosis and treatment of urolithiasis monitoring. In order to reflect the risk of urinary stone formation and to predict the occurrence of urinary calculi in the future, a number of formulas were proposed to describe the risk of urinary stone formation. Some scholars based on the relationship between the various components of urine and the inhibition of crystal components, and put forward a variety of dangerous formula to determine whether or not the formation of stones, dangerous equations and risk index. Although the formula through the analysis of these different variables could not exactly predict the future of stones, but at least to some extent, for screening or diagnosis of gallstone patients, and identified in those patients should take active treatment to have reference value. In 1978, Roberston (23) of urinary stone formation saturation suppression based on the theory of balance, put forward the concept of risk factors for stone formation; found six British risk factors for the formation of Liz area calcium stones are; urine volume, pH, calcium, oxalate, uric acid and acid mucopolysaccharide (GAGS). In fact, the main risk factors for the formation of calcium stones including reduced urine output, urine pH and increased urinary calcium, oxalate, uric acid and excessive excretion of GAGS crystallization inhibitor goathypoeccrisis etc.. Although there was a significant difference between each risk factor in the formation of urinary stones or between normal subjects, there was considerable overlap in the frequency distribution between the two groups. Based on the above research, Robertson proposed calcium stone formation model, according to this model, the premise condition of urinary stone formation is an abnormal urine urine crystallization period; during this period, the formation of crystals in the urine; urinary crystal anomaly is due to a variety of biochemical abnormalities; so as to improve the risk concept stone. According to the stone model, the urine pH increases, calcium and oxalate excretion and urine volume decreased, GAGS excretion decreased markedly increase the risk probability of calcium stone formation. The decision: urine calcium oxalate important factors including saturated oxalic acid in urine (Ox) and citric acid (Cit) and magnesium (Mg) and calcium phosphate content; important factor saturation is urine calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and citric acid (Cit) and pH. The urine citrate inhibition of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate crystal growth; magnesium also inhibits calcium phosphate crystal growth; in addition, some macromolecular substances in the urine also play crystal inhibition.

 

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