ESWL is a non-invasive treatment method, with the continuous improvement of the model and the accumulation of experience, ESWL has become th
ESWL is a non-invasive treatment method, with the continuous improvement of the model and the accumulation of experience, ESWL has become the preferred method of treatment for most urinary calculi. But for certain patients with urinary calculi, such as huge stone anatomical abnormalities or calyceal neck stenosis, with complex staghorn calculi in kidney of kidney stones (diameter > 2.5cm), huge staghorn calculi, multiple calculi, ureteral calculi (diameter > 1.5cm), because ESWL gravel slower, repeatedly caused by gravel the damage, and large stones after ESWL is easy to form the stone street, complications caused by obstruction, infection, acute renal failure, serious or even loss of renal function. Conditions of the unit, the feasibility of minimally invasive treatment, such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy or transurethral ureteroscopic lithotripsy. However, if there is no minimally invasive surgery conditions, although open surgery has many disadvantages, such as large trauma, bleeding, high residual stone rate, it is necessary to choose open surgery.
Open surgical stone syndrome includes complex calculi, ESWL and / or PCNL treatment failure or ureteroscopy for the treatment of renal failure, anatomical abnormalities such as infundibular stenosis, renal calculi in renal calyceal diverticulum (especially in front of calyceal), obstruction of ureteropelvic junction stenosis and morbid obesity, skeletal deformity, hip and the legs and fixed contracture deformity.