Answer: the complex and difficult of kidney stones include diameter greater than 2 cm, stone staghorn stone, multiple stones, stones, horses
Answer: the complex and difficult of kidney stones include diameter greater than 2 cm, stone staghorn stone, multiple stones, stones, horseshoe kidney with ectopic kidney stones, urinary tract infection, cystine stones, solitary kidney stones, these are not the lithotripsy machine to solve large stones or special stones, is also the most easy to recurrence of calculi, patients in life often require multiple surgical interventions, past a patient repeatedly cut stone, It is often seen. affected patients, physical and mental health. At present, the calculus of complex and difficult, respected by percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureteroscopy endoscopic minimally invasive treatment.
The specific operation process of PCNL are as follows: firstly, the doctor set a good position on the patient, with a fine needle puncture into the back directly by the kidney, and gradually expand to establish percutaneous nephrostomy channel, this channel puncture mouth diameter of only 5 6mm; secondly, the use of advanced equipment lithotripsy (such as pneumatic ballistic, laser), microscope by endoscope, the patients in kidney stones crushed into small pieces, and then through the minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy channel by forceps methods such as stones taken out one by one. After the operation, the patient left only a tiny wound, almost no scar after healing. This operation is vividly likened to "the hole to take stone". Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is mainly used for the treatment of complicated renal calculi, multiple renal calculi and upper ureteral calculi.