Diagnostic indications(1) patients with clinically suspected lung cancer, or chest X-ray negative, but positive sputum cancer cells.(2) clin
(1) patients with clinically suspected lung cancer, or chest X-ray negative, but positive sputum cancer cells.
(2) clinical unexplained chronic cough or localized wheezing or wheezing.
(3) to find the bleeding site and the cause of unexplained hemoptysis.
(4) diffuse lesions, solitary nodules or masses of unknown nature, examined by bronchoscopy or needle aspiration lung tissue for pathological or cytological examination or bronchoalveolar lavage specimens for examination.
(5) atelectasis of unknown origin.
(6) absorption of slow or recurrent pneumonia.
(7) unexplained recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, phrenic nerve palsy, superior vena cava syndrome.
(8) using double tube anti pollution specimen brush for the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection.
(9) to observe the tracheoesophageal fistula.
(10) to assess the damage of trachea and bronchus caused by inhalation of harmful gases.
(11) to understand the narrow airway granulation tissue hyperplasia or trachea softening caused by tracheotomy tube.
Two, treatment indications
(1) excessive secretion, pus, blood, and foreign bodies in the trachea and bronchi are removed by suction and lavage.
(2) treatment of atelectasis.
(3) intubation of the nose or mouth.
(1) highly stressed persons who do not cooperate or oppose.
(2) patients with low blood pressure, low cardiac output, severe arrhythmia, acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina.
(3) severe respiratory insufficiency, PaO2 after oxygen is still less than 65mmHg.
(4) aortic aneurysm compressing esophagus.
(5) uncontrollable bleeding (especially those caused by uremia).
(6) unstable bronchial asthma.
(7) extreme exhaustion.
(5) laryngeal spasm.