The spiritual activity of human being is a very complicated, interrelated and mutually restricted process. Abnormal mental activity is manif
The spiritual activity of human being is a very complicated, interrelated and mutually restricted process. Abnormal mental activity is manifested by the explicit behavior of human being, such as speech, writing, expression and action. The symptoms of psychiatric symptoms and mechanism research of science called mental disorder, also called psychopathology (psychopathology). Most mental illnesses cause is unclear, the lack of effective biological index to diagnosis, clinical diagnosis is mainly through the history and mental examination found mental symptoms, and comprehensive analysis and judgment diagnosis results. Therefore, the symptom of mental disorder is an important part of psychiatry, and it has a very important significance in clinical work.
Psychiatric symptoms are a neurobiological basis, mental symptoms are often set to specific regions of the brain, nerve conduction abnormalities, neurochemical transmission system is highly complex, many neurotransmitters, receptors and enzymes system may be a mental illness target abnormal position. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mental symptoms (especially cognitive processes) and the corresponding target sites.
Cognitive process disorder
Sensory and sensory disorders
Sensation is a reflection of the individual attributes of objects, such as shape, color, size, weight, and odor, which are produced by the objective stimulus. Common sensory disorder:
1 sense of allergy (hyperesthesia) is the general strength of the external stimuli increased susceptibility. For example, neurosis or weakness after infection status in patients with peripheral neuropathy, or thalamus, the everyday sounds unbearable, complain about people around noisy voices, closing sound too loud, for water, wind, sunshine is not acceptable.
2 sensory impairment (hypoesthesia) is the general intensity of the external stimulus to reduce the feeling, that is, the increase in sensory threshold. For example, depression, stupor and consciousness disturbance in patients with acupuncture sensation. Nervous system diseases often have feelings of depression. In the function of mental illness in the hysteria, the hypoaesthesia does not comply with the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system.
3 sense of perversion (paraesthesia) to stimulate the outside world with normal people of different nature or the opposite of the abnormal feeling. In hysteria. Such as cold stimulation, patients feel hot.
4, (change of sensory quality feeling bad) caused by poison often, such as the 2006 poisoning caused by "blue" or "yellow", digitalis poisoning caused by "green" or "yellow", intracranial hemorrhage or intracranial vascular congestion over possible redout".
5, senestopathia (senestopathia) inside the body produce strange all sorts of uncomfortable or intolerable feeling, such as stretching, squeezing, walking, crawling sensation, but the patient can not clear the area of discomfort, so unlike visceral hallucination. On the basis of discomfort, can be found in the secondary hypochondria, schizophrenia, depression, neurosis and mental disorder after craniocerebral trauma.
(two) perception and perception disorder
Perception (perception) is the process of the integration of various attributes of things reflected in the brain, and combined with the overall impression of the past experience in the brain. Under normal circumstances, the perception of the impression is consistent with the external objective things. Common perceptual disorders:
The 1 illusion (illusion) is a perception of objective things. Illusion can be divided into different kinds of senses as wrong, wrong, wrong, wrong, wrong, wrong touch and the illusion of sensation. Sometimes it can be seen that the illusion of illusion, that is, the actual existence of things, through subjective imagination, the wrong perception of the original and completely different image. Such as the clouds in the sky as a fairy image. The illusion is different from the illusion of illusion can be realized at that time what is the original content, and the content of the fantasy. Illusion seen in normal, mild disturbance of consciousness, hysteria and schizophrenia patients.
2 illusion (hallucination) a false perception. The perceptual experience that occurs when there is no real stimulus to the senses. According to the different sensory organs can be divided into photism, phonism, olfactory, gustatory hallucination, illusion, hallucination, touch visceral hallucination and motion illusion. To see more clinical auditory hallucinations and visions.
(1) phonism (auditory hallucination): phonism content is various, not only the same type and properties of sound. The most common verbal auditory hallucinations, including critical voices and command hallucinations. Review of patient auditory hallucinations are heard to comment on his shortcomings and problems. Command hallucinations is the patient heard someone ordered him to do some things, such as antifeedant, jumping, beating others, these patients can not disobey and comply with the order, so it can harm themselves and social behavior. Can be seen in a variety of mental disorders, especially schizophrenia.
(2) photism (visual hallucination): the content is rich and diverse, image can be clear and distinct and specific, but sometimes it is unclear. Photism image larger than life called macroptic hallucination (giant image phosphenes), is smaller than the physical microptic hallucination (small visual image). Photism in consciousness, but in conscious state, such as schizophrenia is visible. Another scene of photism, found in the infection of psychosis, non situational hallucinations in schizophrenia.
(3) hallucination (olfactory): more unpleasant unpleasant smells, such as rotting food, burnt goods and chemicals. The content of an illusion is often associated with other hallucinations or delusions. If the patient believes that he is deliberately bad smell on, thereby strengthening the persecution of faith, the patient can show their noses or antifeedant corresponding behavior. When the temporal lobe damage, the first symptom is the magic smell.
(4) hallucination (gustatory): the patient has some peculiar or strange taste in the food and refuses to eat it. Often accompanied by hallucinations and delusions.
(5) the magic touch (tactile hallucination): numbness, crawling sensation, inductance, knife sense. Seen in schizophrenia and organic mental disorders.
(6) visceral hallucination (visceral hallucination) has a fixed internal organ or body feel a strange feeling, such as viscera in torsion, rupture, perforation, or feel the insects in organs crawling. This illusion is usually associated with hypochondriacal delusions, nihilistic delusion. More common in schizophrenia, depression, etc..
According to the nature of the illusion can be divided into true hallucination and pseudohallucination:
(1) true hallucination (genuine hallucination): patients experiencing hallucinations of content from outer space, such as indoor and outside the hospital, but also directly through the sensory perception of patients. The image of an illusion is the same as the real thing.
(2) false hallucinations (pseudo hallucination): hallucinations arise from the patient's subjective space, such as the brain, the body. The illusion is not acquired through the patient's sense organs. What is perceived is not vivid enough. More common in schizophrenia.
Special forms of hallucination:
(1) functional hallucination (functional hallucination): the feature is an illusion (usually phonism) and realistic stimulation at the same time, the common existence and common disappear, but they are not together (this point with the illusion of different). The reality of the stimulus sounds are generally monotonous sounds, such as the bell, the sound of water, the sound of footsteps and the wheel rolling sound, patients in hear these sounds at the same time, appear verbal auditory hallucinations, its content is drab, fixed. Mainly seen in schizophrenia.
(2) hallucination (reflex): when a sense of being stimulated by the real experience of some kind of sensory experience, the other senses can hallucinations. If the patient hears the sound of closing the door, he can see the image of a person. In schizophrenia.
3 sensory integration disorder
Hallucination (psychogenic): the patient can perceive the objective things, but some attributes such as shape, color, distance, spatial location, etc.. Common perception disorders:
(1) physical distortion (metamorphopsia): the patient feels the appearance, size, color, and volume of an external thing. See the appearance of things outside the body, said the increase in physical symptoms of the disease (macropsia), the smaller known as a physical manifestation of small symptoms (micropsia), more common in epilepsy and neurosis.
(2) spatial perception: a patient's perception of the distance of things around him, as things get close or far away, more common in epilepsy and neurosis.
(3) comprehensive environmental perception disorder: all patients feel around seems to be inactive, or even dead like; or on the contrary, feel everything around in the rapidly changing violently; patients may also feel around things is not clear, vague and lack of real sense, known as non photorealistic. Epilepsy and neurosis.
(4) body shape perception disorder: the patient feels that his body, such as length, weight, thickness, shape, color, etc.. If the patient feels lighter, a gust of wind can blow to heaven; or arm a hand seems to become very long, can reach the roof; or felt her face was ugly, patients continue this mirror, called the mirror symptom (spectrophobia). More common in schizophrenia, epilepsy.