Side effects of chemotherapy

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Toxic side effects of chemotherapy: recent toxicity and long-term toxicity:The recent toxicity is divided into partial response (such as loc

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Toxic side effects of chemotherapy: recent toxicity and long-term toxicity:

The recent toxicity is divided into partial response (such as local tissue necrosis, thrombophlebitis etc.) and systemic reactions (including gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic system, heart, lung and kidney toxicity reaction dysfunction and other reaction).

Long term toxicity was mainly caused by reproductive dysfunction, carcinogenesis and teratogenic effects.

In addition, chemotherapy because of its side effects, and sometimes complications, common infection, bleeding, perforation, uric acid crystals, etc..

Common side effects are as follows:

1, local reaction: phlebitis, local tissue necrosis.

2, bone marrow suppression: most chemotherapy drugs have varying degrees of bone marrow suppression. The early stage of bone marrow suppression of white blood cells especially neutropenia, decreased platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin can be serious, at the same time, the patient may also have fatigue, decreased immunity, infection, fever, hemorrhage etc..

3, gastrointestinal toxicity: most chemotherapy drugs can cause gastrointestinal reactions, manifested as dry mouth, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, sometimes there may be oral mucositis or ulcer. Constipation, paralytic ileus, diarrhea, gastrointestinal bleeding and abdominal pain can also be seen.

4, immunosuppression: chemotherapy drugs are generally immunosuppressive drugs, the immune function of the body have different degrees of inhibition. When the immune function is low, the tumor is not easy to control, but accelerate the recurrence or metastasis process.

5, nephrotoxicity: part of the chemotherapy drugs can cause kidney damage, the main manifestations of acute necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells, degeneration, interstitial edema, renal tubular expansion, severe renal failure. Patients may have low back pain, hematuria, edema, abnormal urine test.

6, liver injury: liver reactions caused by chemotherapy drugs can be acute and transient liver damage, including necrosis and inflammation, may also be due to long-term medication, caused by chronic liver damage, such as fibrosis, fatty degeneration, granuloma formation, eosinophil infiltration. The clinical manifestations of abnormal liver function, liver pain, hepatomegaly, jaundice etc..

7, cardiac toxicity: the clinical manifestations of arrhythmia, heart failure and cardiomyopathy syndrome (patients showed weakness, dyspnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, heart failure can be a rapid pulse, breathing fast, liver, cardiac enlargement, pulmonary edema and pleural effusion and abnormal ECG, etc.).

8, lung toxicity: a small number of chemotherapy can be pulmonary toxicity, manifested as pulmonary interstitial inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical manifestations were fever, cough, shortness of breath, most patients with acute onset, granulocytosis.

The 9 part, neurotoxicity: chemotherapeutic drugs can cause peripheral neuritis, the performance of the fingers (toe) numbness, tendon reflexes, sensory abnormalities, sometimes constipation or paralytic ileus. Some drugs can produce central neurotoxicity, mainly manifested as abnormal sensation, vibration and dynamic weakening, numbness, tingling, gait disorders, ataxia, lethargy, mental disorders, etc..

10, hair loss: some chemotherapy drugs damage hair follicles, hair loss is usually related to the concentration and dose of drugs.

11 other: such as hearing loss, facial flushing, skin rash, or nail deformation, osteoporosis, bladder and urethral stimulation, amenorrhea, infertility, sexual dysfunction, male breast enlargement may be caused by some chemotherapy drugs.

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy will produce some side effects, people will produce nausea, vomiting and other symptoms of physical discomfort.

Side effects and precautions of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for malignant tumors:

Most of the existing chemotherapeutic drugs can inhibit or kill cancer cells at the same time, also have toxic effects on normal cells in the body. The patient is most often performed for white blood cells or thrombocytopenia, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. In addition, patients should pay attention to oral hygiene, adhere to gargle after each meal, so as to avoid oral ulcers. Diarrhea occurred in chemotherapy, especially when more than five times a day should be promptly told the doctor. Some chemotherapy drugs can cause hair loss, patients or their families should be psychologically prepared. In short, chemotherapy drugs have a variety of side effects, chemotherapy patients in the body's immune function is low, so it should adjust their emotions, avoid anxiety, distress or impatience.

 

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