Nuclear medicine popular science knowledge 80 questions - reprinted from the nuclear medicine professional network

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1 have you ever heard of nuclear medicine in the hospital?Into the hospital, we all know that the Department of internal medicine, surgery,


1 have you ever heard of nuclear medicine in the hospital?

Into the hospital, we all know that the Department of internal medicine, surgery, will know the laboratory, Radiology, etc., to see a doctor also know which branch. But when it comes to nuclear medicine, many people may not have heard of it. What is nuclear medicine? Is it a disease or a disease? What disease can you treat? Nuclear medicine is a technology that uses modern nuclear medicine to diagnose and treat diseases. Just because of our country's economy is relatively backward, most of the Department of nuclear medicine in large hospitals, small and medium hospitals are rarely built in nuclear medicine.

2 what is nuclear medicine?

Nuclear medicine is a kind of science which is used to diagnose and treat diseases by means of the drugs labeled with radionuclides. Nuclear medicine is a new developing discipline, and radionuclide tracer technique is the basic technology of nuclear medicine.

3 radionuclide tracer technology is how?

Radionuclide tracer technique is the core of nuclear medicine, and it is closely related to the diagnosis and treatment. Tracer technology is no stranger to us. For example, the use of wild life in the nature of the giant panda is the use of tracer technology. After the panda has been caught by a scientist, a radio transmitter is placed on it, and people can detect the whereabouts of the giant panda in the room through the instrument. Can be imagined, as a tracer, must be very light, very small, can not be detected by the panda, it can not affect and interfere with the behavior and function of the panda.

The tracer used in nuclear medicine is not a radio transmitter, but a radionuclide. When it is attached to some compounds, it becomes a radioactive drug, which is introduced into the body, and we are able to detect the distribution of the drug in the body through an instrument. If you want to know the heart, we put the radionuclide and love into the heart of the drugs together, if you want to find the tumor can also be connected to the radionuclide drugs on the tumor, therefore using radioactive tracer technique can observe the metabolism and function of patients with various organs or tissues.

4 Nuclear Medicine SPECT what can be done to check?

Can understand the main organs of heart, kidney, liver, gallbladder, thyroid function; to understand the myocardial perfusion, brain, lung and other organs; to understand and judge the existence of the tumor and lymph node metastasis and bone metastasis and so on all relevant organs and tissue function, blood flow and metabolism. For different purposes, the purpose of understanding the function of the different types of radioactive drugs used is different, and there are very few types of labeled radionuclides.

5 what is the difference between nuclear medicine imaging examination and radiological imaging and ultrasonography?

The difference is very big, there are essential differences. The imaging of nuclear medicine is a kind of functional metabolic imaging, which depends on the blood flow, cell function, the number of cells, the degree of metabolic activity and excretion and drainage. And CT, MR, B ultrasound examination is mainly through the display of organ or tissue anatomical morphology changes, although the resolution is very high, but the function of the metabolic change is not as good as nuclear medicine examination.

6 is it safe to use radiopharmaceuticals?

Very safe. There are 2 main factors that cause the unsafe factors of various imaging examinations. The 1 is the chemical composition of the drug, mainly allergic reactions and toxic reactions; the 1 is caused by radioactive radiation. Because of the very sensitive tracer technique, the chemical composition of radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine is extremely small, almost negligible. So it will not cause allergic and toxic reactions. The radionuclide used in the diagnosis of nuclide is mainly gamma ray, which is characterized by strong penetrating ability and little damage to the body. For example, the bladder of patients with nuclear medicine, urine reflux imaging, the patient received only 1% of the dose of X-ray radiography. We know that the X-ray examination is safe for patients, so nuclear medicine imaging examination is the case.

7 nuclear medical examination is expensive?

Nuclear medical imaging examination is mostly a few hundred dollars, there are thousands of dollars or even million checks, intuitive feeling is really expensive ah. The price depends on the cost. So expensive check whether it is worthwhile, which can play a big role and ultimately save money or money for patients in the diagnosis and treatment process. For example, the whole body bone imaging of nuclear medicine is a very sensitive method for the early detection of bone metastases. However, it is possible to detect bone metastases and avoid unnecessary surgery. The reduction in the cost of error surgery is far greater than the expenditure of bone scintigraphy. Moreover, the operation should not be done, the damage caused to the patient is immeasurable. For example, patients with coronary heart disease after myocardial perfusion imaging of nuclear medicine, will allow many patients to avoid unnecessary catheter intervention. Nuclear medicine examination of about 2 thousand yuan, catheter interventional treatment often several million. Reducing the risk of catheter therapy and restenosis after surgery is crucial to the prognosis of patients.

8 what is the whole body bone imaging?

Bone imaging is one of the most commonly used imaging examinations in nuclear medicine. It has a history of more than 30 years. It is the most important part of the medical imaging in the domestic and foreign general hospitals. It is a technique for the whole body imaging of a radioactive drug that is injected into the body, and then through a special instrument. It can clearly show the shape of the whole skeleton, and can reflect the blood supply and metabolism of the bone, so it is very important to observe the diagnosis and treatment effect of various bone diseases.

9 what problems can be solved by whole body bone imaging?

For patients with malignant tumor, early detection of bone metastases, and some malignant tumors such as prostate cancer, breast cancer and lung cancer patients before staging and follow-up after treatment; for the diagnosis of unexplained bone pain (excluding bone tumors); in addition to the hard X-ray small fracture, such as ribs, phalanx, phalanx fracture; bone scintigraphy can also observe the survival situation of the bone graft and artificial joint replacement after the follow-up.

10 what is the preparation of the patients before the whole body bone scintigraphy?

After the injection of imaging agent, patients need more water, generally in the two hours after injection of the drinking water in about 5001000ml, urination should prevent urine pollution underwear and body, if it is found that the pollution of pollution should be replaced timely clothes and should be re examined after skin cleaning of local pollution, and check in front at the same time as urine, removal of the body the metal items such as necklaces, coins, keys, to prevent the effects of inspection results. If the patient has recently used a barium agent in the internal radiology department, the patient should be discharged and examined.

11 What are the advantages and disadvantages of whole body bone imaging and X?

The main advantage is to have a high sensitivity in the exploration of bone disease, can appear in the X-ray examination showed abnormal lesions earlier. In most cases, bone imaging can detect early bone metastases, bone X-ray can often be more than 6 months ahead of schedule 3 or even earlier time; as a result of a bone imaging can understand the situation, so can be found outside the scope of X-ray examination in the lesions, recessive or small fractures such as rib fracture crack and the wrist scaphoid fracture, initial X-ray cannot be found, found only in the follow-up, and bone scintigraphy can timely diagnose.

The main disadvantage is that the specificity is not high, that is almost all of the bone will display the abnormal distribution of radioactivity in bone imaging, it is difficult to increase only according to the local map on the isolated radioactive bone imaging (or reduced) region to make clear diagnosis of bone disease.

12 if all patients with malignant tumors before surgery to do the whole body bone scintigraphy?

For the majority of diagnosed bone malignant tumor patients, especially some of the most commonly metastasize to bone tumors, such as breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, thyroid cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, regardless of the pain symptoms, the conditions should be carried out preoperative bone scintigraphy, and understand whether to bone metastasis. Treatment decisions.

13 patients with malignant tumor after treatment, although no pain symptoms are necessary to do whole body bone scintigraphy?

For the most frequently occurring malignant tumor patients with bone metastasis, once the pain, we can think of to do as soon as possible to exclude bone metastasis bone imaging. But for no pain patients is necessary for bone imaging? The answer is still necessary. Because about 19%34% patients with bone metastasis and no pain. So a few years ago the primary tumor incidence, don't wait to appear when they think of bone pain imaging.

14 tumor patients with abnormal bone scintigraphy are bone metastases?

Because of the characteristics of high sensitivity and low specificity in the detection of bone lesions, some benign bone diseases can be manifested as abnormal bone imaging. Common in traumatic fracture; inflammation such as osteomyelitis, bone abscess; benign bone tumors such as osteoid osteoma, bone cyst, osteochondroma; some arthritis also can appear abnormal, such as degenerative osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.. In addition, some bone soft tissue can also be used for bone imaging agent. In short, when the tumor patients with abnormal bone imaging, do not be too nervous, with a combination of medical history and imaging data analysis, make the right judgments.

15 what is radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging?

Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging is a kind of imaging diagnostic method, which has the advantages of simple, noninvasive, safe, high diagnostic accuracy and so on. Myocardial perfusion and myocardial cell function can be observed by radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging, that is to say, whether myocardial ischemia can be seen directly.

16 radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging on precordial discomfort, pain, shortness of breath and other symptoms of the patients have what help? These symptoms may be caused by myocardial ischemia in coronary heart disease. Therefore, it is possible to accurately diagnose coronary artery disease with or without coronary heart disease by radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging, the accuracy rate is more than 90%, or even more than 95%, so that it can be treated in time.

17 nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging for patients with coronary heart disease and other help?

For patients who have been diagnosed with coronary heart disease, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging can help you assess your prognosis and estimate your risk. That is, if your myocardial perfusion imaging is normal, indicating that within one year, the incidence of cardiac events (myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, etc.) is less than 1%, indicating a good prognosis, is relatively safe.

18 nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with coronary heart disease treatment choice what help?

Radionuclide myocardial imaging can help you identify treatment options. That is, if your myocardial perfusion imaging is normal, the first choice of medical treatment; if there is myocardial ischemia, coronary stent or coronary artery bypass surgery should be performed.

What is the role of 19 nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging in patients who have had stents or bypass surgery?

Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging can be used to evaluate the therapeutic effect.

20 why should the radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging load test at the same time?

The general case of coronary artery stenosis even reached 70-80%, the resting condition may not show myocardial ischemia, only when cardiac oxygen consumption increases the load (exercise, fatigue, emotional) under the condition of myocardial ischemia is obvious. Therefore, in order to accurately diagnose myocardial ischemia in coronary heart disease, we should do the load test in the myocardial perfusion imaging.

21 what is myocardial perfusion imaging?

Interventional load test in myocardial perfusion imaging. The load test is divided into exercise test and drug test in two, the purpose is to make the patient is in the heart under load condition, if there is myocardial ischemia, it can be reflected by myocardial perfusion imaging, in order to get the accurate diagnosis.

22 patients before the load test should pay attention to what?

Load test before the patients should discontinue vasodilators and inhibiting drugs (such as heart rate: nitrates drugs, angiotensin inhibitors, beta blockers, etc.), these drugs may affect the load test, thereby affecting the accuracy of diagnosis of myocardial ischemia

What is the procedure of 23 nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging?

Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in two days. Load test or resting injection of imaging agent (radionuclide) - 20 minutes, half an hour after eating a fatty meal (fried egg, milk, chocolate, etc.) 90 minutes of myocardial perfusion imaging.

24 patients with myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging should pay attention to what?

Attention should be paid to the examinee: imaging examination into the vegetarian breakfast that day, 1-2 days before discontinuation of vasodilators and beta blockers, check the date of carrying the fried egg or milk fat meal to the Department of nuclear medicine; suffering from bronchial asthma do not recommend drug test (adenosine, Pan Shengding).

What is the role of 25 nuclide myocardial imaging in patients with myocardial infarction?

In patients with myocardial infarction, radionuclide myocardial imaging was performed to assess the presence of viable myocardium in the infarct area to determine the next treatment option. At present, the best method is nuclide myocardial metabolism imaging.

26 what is radionuclide myocardial metabolic imaging?

The viability of myocardial infarction in the ischemic state, the ability to absorb glucose. Radionuclide myocardial metabolic imaging is to detect whether there is myocardial infarction in the myocardial infarction area of myocardial cells, accurately determine whether there is myocardial infarction myocardial viability.

What is the difference between the 27 nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging and multi - row CT and coronary angiography?

Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging and multi row CT and coronary angiography can be used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging showed myocardial ischemia and myocardial function. However, multi row CT and coronary angiography showed that the coronary artery had plaque, calcification and stenosis.

For example: like the coronary artery irrigation canals, myocardial like rice, farmers are more concerned about the growth of rice, if the rice is good, that food and water supply, farmers will not need to go to the drains; once the piece in the paddy rice appeared withered, that this lack of nutrients in paddy field, farmers only need to repair the water supply in paddy field can be, but not necessary to repair all drains.

Therefore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging is the observation of rice growth (myocardial ischemia), and multi slice CT and coronary angiography is the observation of drains is blocked (canal obstruction).

28 what is the significance of myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease?

It is more important to understand the myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease". Because of the location of myocardial ischemia, coronary artery lesions were identified.

29 what is the meaning of "blood vessel of the heart"?

Coronary atherosclerosis is a widespread disease, once the cause of myocardial ischemia will be as early as possible coronary revascularization treatment, to prevent the occurrence of cardiac events. Before the coronary revascularization, the doctor to find the cause of myocardial ischemia culprit blood vessels, in order to targeted placement of coronary stents and bypass surgery. Therefore, it is of great clinical significance to determine the "culprit vessel" before the coronary artery revascularization.

30 what is radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging?

Radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging is: through intravenous injection of a small amount of radioactive protein particles, with the blood flow into the pulmonary artery, and a temporary stay in the pulmonary capillaries, through special imaging equipment (SPECT) can show the patency of the pulmonary artery and branches.

Radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging can accurately determine the location, extent and degree of pulmonary artery and branch blockage.

31 pulmonary embolism is a pulmonary artery obstructive disease, which can be diagnosed by pulmonary perfusion imaging Pulmonary perfusion imaging method in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is very good, but its specificity is low, that is to say, all can cause pulmonary artery obstruction diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, lung cancer, pulmonary infection, will lead to pulmonary perfusion abnormalities, the disease can also cause abnormal lung ventilation, pulmonary embolism and pulmonary ventilation imaging is normal, therefore, pulmonary perfusion imaging and pulmonary ventilation imaging combined application can greatly improve the accuracy of diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.

32 in the case of pulmonary embolism with radionuclide pulmonary perfusion / ventilation imaging, why do we need to have both lower limb venous imaging at the same time?

Cause of pulmonary embolism embolus from venous thrombosis and its advantages in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism at the same time, also made clear the source of patient emboli, convenient treatment for the cause. The other is to reduce a radioactive drug use, which reduces the test two times of trouble, but also save a drug.

33 what are the main methods of nuclear medicine used to check the genitourinary system?

Renal imaging, renal dynamic imaging, renal static imaging, bladder ureteral reflux imaging, scrotal imaging and imaging of the fallopian tube. The most commonly used is the renal and renal dynamic imaging.

34 renal and renal dynamic imaging is mainly used to examine the clinical problems? The renal function and the degree of impaired renal function can be determined by using the renal graph or renal dynamic imaging. Renal dynamic imaging was also able to calculate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). GFR and ERPF are two important parameters for judging renal function.

35 What are the differences between the methods of nuclear medicine and other renal function tests, such as serum creatinine and urea nitrogen? The renal and urinary tract conditions were observed by using the principle of isotope tracer technique. The tracer drug is excreted from the urinary system, which reflects the process of urine formation and excretion through the kidneys and urinary tract. The information obtained is more in line with the physiological state of the urinary system, the result is more accurate. In addition, some of the commonly used laboratory methods for the detection of renal function can only get the sum of the two kidney function, can not understand the specific circumstances of each kidney. The renal and renal dynamic imaging can observe and judge the function of each kidney and the situation of each side of the urinary tract.

36 which is better?

The renal graph is a non imaging method, which has low cost and high accuracy. Renal dynamic imaging can be used to obtain the images of both kidney and bilateral urinary tract, and the results of the information is large, the sensitivity and accuracy are significantly higher than that of the kidney.

37 what is the preparation for renal dynamic imaging?

No special preparation before examination. It should be noted that the renal dynamic imaging is a functional examination, should be carried out in the normal state of the human body, so the examinee should not fasting, should be a normal diet, or it may result in error.

38 dialysis patients can be used for renal and renal dynamic imaging?

These two kinds of nuclear medicine examination is very safe, the drugs used have little effect on the kidney. Therefore, patients with severe renal impairment can also carry out these checks.

39 can children perform renal dynamic imaging?

Because of the rapid development of the imaging agent for renal dynamic imaging, it is very safe to human body, so the children and even the newborn can accept the renal dynamic imaging examination. Due to the examination of the body to keep the body, can not cope with the needs of children before the application of some sedative drugs.

52 hyperthyroidism with malignant exophthalmos, can recover in iodine -131 treatment?

According to reports, hyperthyroidism patients can have 1560% with monocular or binocular process, some in hyperthyroidism exophthalmos before, some appear in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, a patient can appear in the control of hyperthyroidism after even hypothyroidism. Treatment of hyperthyroidism exophthalmos, lack of specific methods at home and abroad. The clinical practice showed that iodine -131 treatment after most hyperthyroid exophthalmos was alleviated, very few patients with hyperthyroidism symptoms after controlling the degree of exophthalmos is still aggravating, appear this kind of circumstance should go further symptomatic treatment in ophthalmology.

53 Graves disease hyperthyroidism treatment method? What are the disadvantages?

There are three main treatment methods for Graves disease hyperthyroidism, including ATD, 131I, and surgical treatment.

ATD treatment of internal medicine is relatively mild, timely adjustment of drug dosage in the course of treatment. The first disadvantage is the long duration of treatment, usually need to standardize treatment for 1-2 years; during treatment, ATD can cause liver, kidney function and hematopoietic system damage and once it is often difficult to adhere to. One of the disadvantages of ATD treatment is that when the drug is stopped or the dose is reduced, it is easy to relapse. It is reported that the recurrence rate of ATD is about 40-60%.

131I treatment method is simple, usually only take a 131I, hyperthyroidism symptoms in 4 weeks after treatment began to improve, generally in a year or so hyperthyroidism remission rate of up to 75-80%. 131I treatment did not cause damage to liver, kidney and hematopoietic function. Therefore, it is suitable for the treatment of hyperthyroidism patients with abnormal liver or renal function and reduced blood cells due to ATD treatment. Some 131I patients after treatment for six months without symptoms of improvement or remission of patients, can be re treated with 131I. One of the major complications of 131I is low, research shows that occurred within one year after 131I treatment of hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism) by thyroid hormone replacement therapy, some people can return to normal; but the treatment of 131I after a year of hypothyroidism (late hypothyroidism) often requires a long time or a lifetime of thyroid hormone replacement treatment. In addition, in patients with severe hyperthyroidism exophthalmos patients should be treated by surgery to avoid aggravation of exophthalmos.

Surgical treatment of subtotal thyroidectomy in the treatment of hyperthyroidism is usually used to relieve the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis rapidly, especially for obvious thyroid enlargement with exophthalmos and Hyperthyroidism Accompanied with sarcoidosis patients, but its shortcomings are trauma; individual cases may cause recurrent laryngeal nerve damage, parathyroid gland dysfunction and other complications. There are still some patients of postoperative recurrence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

The advantages and disadvantages of 54 hypothyroidism treatment?

Hypothyroidism was diagnosed, the treatment method is simple, the thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the patient's thyroid hormone levels can be adjusted properly, due to the lack of patient treatment is the supplement of thyroid hormone, as long as the normal range of thyroid hormone level in vivo to, will not cause the function of liver and kidney and hematopoietic system of patients with damage will not affect the pregnancy; and lactation. But heart disease associated with hypothyroidism should be small dose supplement therapy.

55 What is the case for the use of radionuclide therapy for metastatic bone cancer?

As we all know, patients with malignant tumors to the advanced stage, there will be multiple metastases of the body parts, which is also a common bone metastases. Especially lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer patients, about 70% to 80% will have bone metastases, and there are nearly half of the patients with severe bone pain. We usually use external radiation to treat (radiation), but when the body has multiple bone metastases, this method will be subject to considerable restrictions. If the radionuclide bone scan showed that there was a high concentration of bone metastases in the whole body, we could consider the application of radionuclide therapy. The treatment of metastatic bone cancer with radionuclide therapy can relieve pain, relieve symptoms, improve the quality of life, and even prolong life.

56 which patients with bone metastases are suitable for the treatment of radionuclide internal irradiation?

For patients with extensive metastatic bone cancer, if the bone imaging showed that the lesions were more radioactive than the 3.5 * 109/L, the platelet was higher than that of 90 * 109/L.

57 why can we use radionuclide to treat bone metastases?

Because of the invasion of tumor cells, the bone tissue is destroyed, and the repair effect of osteoblasts is very active. To have a bone role of radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of bone metastases and bone metabolism in the active site will gather radioactive drugs, and normal bone concentration less. In this way, the radioactive drugs will be concentrated in the vicinity of the tumor lesions, the use of radionuclide emission of beta rays, the tumor irradiation, to achieve pain and destruction of tumor tissue.

58 why can 89Sr be used to treat bone cancer?

89Sr is a kind of highly radioactive nuclide bone affinity, and calcium metabolism with the same family, calcium in bone mineral in vivo. After intravenous injection, 89Sr in the number of lesions in the bone metastasis is 2 ~ 25 times of normal bone, and stranded in cancer, the bone tumor lesions within the residence time of about 100 days, radiation to kill cancer cells, narrow lesions play a good analgesic effect. The distance between the rays in the tissue is only 2.4mm, and it will not damage the surrounding normal tissues or organs.

59 is it safe to use 89Sr in the treatment of metastatic bone cancer?

Application of 89Sr in the treatment of metastatic bone cancer, there may be a transient bone marrow suppression. In the treatment of about 20% to 30% of patients after treatment can be reduced white blood cells and platelets, mostly in the 2 ~ March can be restored to the level before treatment. Therefore, the application of 89Sr in the treatment of bone metastases is safe.

60 compared with other treatment methods, the use of radionuclide therapy of bone metastases, what are the advantages of high prices?

The treatment of metastatic bone cancer pain caused by the side effects of methods such as analgesics, chemotherapy and hormone therapy for patients with advanced greatly, the effect is not ideal. Although the application of external radiation therapy is effective in the treatment of pain, but for solitary bone metastasis treatment effect is good, is not suitable for extensive bone metastasis. The internal radiation therapy is a targeted therapy, the treatment method is simple, direct intravenous injection can, little damage to the surrounding tissue, less side effects, not only a good analgesic effect, but also for metastatic bone lesions and narrowing of the elimination effect. 89Sr and 153Sm are commonly used in internal radiation therapy.

153Sm is a phosphate compound as the carrier concentration in the lesions of bone lesions, 3 days after the injection of the highest uptake ratio, so pain occurrence time is relatively fast, but the pain duration is relatively short, need monthly injections. Each treatment price is about 2000 yuan. The application of 89Sr in injection treatment, 10 days after the drug has reached a peak in the accumulation of the tumor, so pain occurrence time is relatively slow, but the maintenance time is long, the average duration was 3 to 6 months, so the two treatment time interval of at least 3 months or more. Each treatment price is about 8000 yuan. The effective rate of 89Sr and 153Sm in the treatment of bone metastases was 80% to 90%, especially for the patients with primary tumor of prostate cancer, breast cancer and lung cancer. Moreover, the effect of 89Sr on bone marrow inhibition was smaller than that of 153Sm. Therefore, if the patients with severe illness, want to quickly relieve pain and family economy is relatively difficult for patients with 153Sm is recommended; and for patients with mild pain, want to maintain a longer time of pain in patients with 89Sr.

61 why is nuclear medicine imaging as a diagnostic technique for functional and molecular imaging?

Nuclear medicine imaging is an imaging diagnostic technique for functional metabolism and cellular molecular level. The patient received intravenous or oral examination before the trace is called imaging medicine "probe", participate in the circulation and metabolism organ and tissue cells in vivo, and continuously emit very weak signal, the exploration of doctors to track the extremely weak signal with high-tech means in vitro, with digital images, curves or photos form, early detection and judgment of abnormal changes in the human body has the function of metabolism and cell molecular level occurred, conventional radiographic finding or diagnosis difficult and complicated diseases such as malignant tumor, early localization of various qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and regular inspection can not learn, the correct guidance of the malignant tumors carry out reasonable individualized comprehensive treatment, high risk in early screening of malignant tumors, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and brain functional diseases are of great help. It is simple, sensitive, specific, noninvasive, safe, reproducible, accurate and reliable.

62 what are the main methods of nuclear medicine molecular imaging technology?

Nuclear medicine molecular imaging technology mainly includes PET (positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) and single photon emission computed tomography) two inspection technology, occupies a very important position in molecular imaging research, can make a quantitative analysis on the physiological biochemical processes in living tissues, such as blood flow, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis speed, receptor density and ligand binding selectivity and kinetics, protein function and gene expression. Direct labeling drugs using positron emitter, can make prospective judgment of the drug dose, site of action, possible side effects, and determine the type of product of its metabolic reactions, observation of drugs and other drugs, drug interactions and nutrient interactions, and drug receptors, drug and enzyme the interaction, so as to achieve the purpose of diagnosis and curative effect judgment.

63 what is SPECT technology?

ECT is commonly referred to as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). It is in fact the one or more probe around a patient organ for 360 degree rotating gamma camera rotates in a certain angle, every collection a picture, and then the image is superimposed, and cross section, the organ reconstruction of coronal and sagittal or any need for a different fault section image thus, greatly improves the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy. SPECT can also perform planar and dynamic (functional) imaging of organs.

64 what is PET technology?

Positron emission tomography, PET. It is one of the most advanced medical imaging diagnostic equipment in the world at present. It is also the most advanced medical imaging technology on the molecular and cellular level. PET can be used for quantitative and dynamic detection of metabolic substances or drugs in human body, which is the best way to diagnose and guide the treatment of various malignant tumors, coronary heart disease and brain diseases. The clinical application of PET is one of the main signs of high tech medical diagnosis in developed countries. The application of PET in clinical medicine mainly focuses on three major areas: malignant tumor, nervous system and cardiovascular system.

65 what is PET/CT technology?

PET/CT, which is the most advanced positron emission tomography imaging instrument and advanced high resolution multi-slice spiral CT two combined with the integration of "large functional metabolic and molecular diagnostic imaging equipment, also has PET and CT check function, to achieve a real sense of complementary advantages (1+1> 2), a check at the same time provide lesions (such as malignant tumors) change the anatomic structure and function, the metabolism of accurate information, improves the accuracy of disease diagnosis, the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT was better than pure PET or multi row CT results, PET/CT is a milepost on the history of technology of medical image diagnosis landmark. At the same time, PET/CT is one of the most important technologies in the field of Life Science (brain function, gene protein function imaging diagnosis) and its clinical application.

66 what are the advantages of PET/CT technology?

In medical imaging model is divided into two categories: anatomical imaging and functional imaging, the former describes human anatomy and morphological changes in the X-ray image information, as the representative of the latter; mainly describe the function of the human body metabolism and molecular abnormalities in nuclear medical imaging information, as the representative, the two have different characteristics. X-ray image is the use of X-ray to penetrate the human body, the attenuation coefficient of X-ray transmission as the imaging parameters, which reflect the image difference between the density of human tissue and organ; nuclear medicine imaging detection imaging is injection of drugs known as a "probe" of the disease in the human body extremely weak signal changes as the imaging parameters, the image mainly reflecting the body organ function, metabolism and other physiological and biochemical processes.

PET/CT, which is the most advanced PET technology and high resolution multi row spiral CT "two strong combination of integrated" large-scale functional metabolic and molecular imaging diagnostic equipment. PET/CT will be the most advanced function of the human body metabolism imaging technique and radiological imaging diagnosis technique of multi slice spiral CT integration together, using the same examination bed and with an image processing workstation, double check function with PET and multi row CT, while providing a check (such as malignant tumor lesions) change of anatomy the structure and function of the metabolism of accurate information, improve the accuracy of disease diagnosis. The diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT is significantly better than that of pure PET or simple multi detector CT, and PET/CT is a landmark in the history of the development of medical imaging technology.

67 PET, PET/CT technology can detect early tumors?

Malignant tumor and its metastasis have the characteristics of fast growth, strong metabolism and strong proliferation ability. In the early stage of cancer, the cancer cells in the human body has not yet formed a clear tumor, the metabolic level can be significantly different from normal cells. PET, PET/CT imaging technology is an extremely small amount of "tumor" probe into the human body, in particular in vitro detection instrument, three-dimensional image display of human organs as a "transparent" and shows the physiological metabolism of systemic and anatomical structure, all lesions allow doctors to clear, can be found below 2 centimeters (to 3 mm) in the early formation of tumors, the scan image was "bright spot", the naked eye can see the metabolism of cancer cells especially strong, early discovery of hidden cancer, cancer early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment. The high and new technology fundamentally changed the traditional imaging equipment for the diagnosis and treatment of tumors, so that clinicians can understand the dynamic process of tumor development from the cell and molecular level. At the same time, coronary heart disease, epilepsy and other neurological and psychiatric diseases can be early diagnosis.

68 what are the advantages of nuclear medical imaging and radiological imaging?

Medical imaging examination includes Radiology (X-ray plain film, CT, etc.), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and nuclear medicine imaging (PET, PET/CT, SPECT), etc.. Nuclear medicine imaging and other diagnostic imaging technology is different, nuclear medical imaging is the imaging of trace drugs called disease "probe" into the body, with high-tech in vitro exploration "probe" in the human body or target organ in dynamic and / or static distribution. These probes have the same physiological and biochemical characteristics as the natural metabolic substances in the human body, so as to understand the changes of human organ function, physiology and biochemistry, metabolism and gene expression. Most early in the course of the disease only function (including blood flow, metabolism, receptor and gene expression) of the change, some diseases after treatment, changes in the local structure of the lesions returned to normal, but the function and metabolism of body organ on the damage still exists, the X X-ray, ultrasound, CT and MRI often check the negative result, and nuclear medicine imaging can for disease diagnosis, especially early diagnosis and timely treatment of disease can provide important diagnostic information.

Compared with other imaging diagnostic techniques, the advantage of nuclear medical imaging examination is that the disease can be diagnosed early, the results are more accurate, and the whole body can be examined quickly.

69 what is the relationship between nuclear imaging and other imaging techniques?

The functional metabolism and anatomical structure of human organs are interdependent. The functional metabolism of human organs is based on the anatomical structure of the human body, and the existence of the anatomical structure must depend on its normal functional metabolic activities (blood supply and metabolism). The anatomical changes of function inevitably associated with metabolic changes and functional metabolic activities will eventually lead to persistent abnormal anatomy of the injury, which determines the only relationship between nuclear medicine imaging and other diagnostic imaging techniques are complementary and mutually complementary and mutual development. Nuclear medical PET/CT inspection technology, make the patient a check and pathological anatomy changes of structure and function, the metabolism of accurate information, to avoid unnecessary or other inspection fees for invasive examination and treatment, clinical application from the price performance ratio of speaking to the patient, especially in high-risk population with the tendency of the incidence of malignant tumor in patients with malignant tumors or speaking, is relatively reasonable medical consumption.

70 what are the characteristics of molecular imaging technology in nuclear medicine?

After entering in twenty-first Century has entered the "medical molecular medicine" era, the understanding of disease must be from organs and systems into isolated from physiological and biochemical cell molecular level to the understanding of disease changes in cellular and molecular level information, clarify the metabolic activity of lesions of high and low, to help the diagnosis, treatment and curative effect evaluation. Due to the tumor tissue with abundant blood supply, strengthen metabolism, increase energy consumption, medical examination and molecular probe for understanding metabolic tumor in sugar, fat and protein on the level of activity, and differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors, the clinical value of tumor classification, differential diagnosis and detection of metastases, radiotherapy and clinical observation chemotherapy induced necrosis and tumor recurrence are high, is helpful to the correct treatment and prognosis of tumor patients, therefore, nuclear medicine PET and PET/CT technology is the best method for diagnosis of clinical tumor molecular technology.

71 PET and PET/CT can solve the problem of cancer patients?

1 to identify benign and malignant tumors or lesions: it is well known that the differentiation of benign and malignant tumors is very important, not only related to the treatment plan, but also directly affect the prognosis of patients. If the patient have a single pulmonary nodules by PET / CT check, if the nodule metabolism is not high, suggesting the possibility of large benign lesions, the choice of operation should be cautious; conversely, if the nodule increased metabolic activity, suggesting the possibility of malignancy, to take active treatment, including surgery.

2 tumor staging: tumor staging is an important basis for the treatment of patients. PET / CT imaging for patients, a PET / CT imaging can provide the brain, lung, lymph nodes, liver, adrenal gland and bones and other body organs have no transfer of information, is beneficial to lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, ovarian cancer and lymphoma and other tumors for accurate clinical staging. The diagnosis of lymph node metastasis cases, PET / CT more accurately, this is because the CT or MRI is enlarged lymph nodes (> 1cm) as transfer, which are due to chronic inflammation caused by lymph node enlargement, or will have lymph node invasion and tumor size of normal misjudgment of the normal, PET according to the metabolic activity of lymph node metastasis, than only considering the size of the lesion is more accurate.

To evaluate the effect of 3: due to the PET / CT has very high sensitivity and functional metabolic imaging characteristics, the curative effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to determine more accurate and sensitive, can guide clinicians to adjust treatment.

4 the identification of tumor necrosis and fibrosis after treatment with residual or recurrence: PET / CT can identify chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery after treatment of tumor necrosis, fibrosis and residual or recurrence, and other imaging methods is difficult to achieve.

5 to help develop a plan for cancer radiotherapy: PET / CT can help radiologists to delineate more reasonable biological targets, to help develop radiotherapy plan.

6 the primary focus of the tumor: Patients with tumor metastasis have been identified, through PET / CT examination, can further find the primary tumor lesions.

72 PET and PET/CT can solve the problem of brain disease patients?

1 the localization of epileptic foci and the evaluation of surgical efficacy: to help locate the focus of epilepsy, to provide reference for Department of cerebral surgery surgery. The coincidence rate of PET / CT and the location of epileptogenic focus in traumatic cerebral cortex was more than 90%, which provided a new choice for the localization of epileptic foci. Under the guidance of PET / CT localization, the majority of patients were able to control the disease.

2 early diagnosis of dementia: dementia lack of effective treatment, but some patients, such as early detection, can be improved by appropriate treatment to improve symptoms or delay the progress of the disease. Therefore, the early diagnosis of dementia by PET / CT is of great significance to the patient, family and society. At the same time can be used to identify Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

3 in the application of cerebrovascular disease: transient ischemic attack (TIA) and cerebral infarction in the early positioning, efficacy evaluation and prognosis.

73 PET and PET/CT can solve the problem of patients with cardiovascular disease?

It is the most reliable method to judge whether myocardial infarction site is alive or not. Whether the survival of myocardial infarction, directly related to the ability to accept coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and to estimate the prognosis. If the site of myocardial infarction has a viable myocardium, it will be an indication of CABG or PTCA, and surgery can be successful.

74 PET and PET/CT healthy check-up can bring what profit?

PET and PET / CT technology is the world's most high-end medical imaging diagnostic equipment, called the modern high-tech crown". It can sensitively reflect the organs, such as brain, heart and lung, liver, spleen and stomach and other organs function and metabolic status, the examination result is vividly called medical images "translucent", can be found in the ultra early metabolism of malignant tumors, the early diagnosis of malignant tumors of human dream, known as the "radar" to detect the tumor or tumor'". With the improvement of living standards, strengthen the self health care consciousness, society of healthy people have more demand, due to the PET / CT for the early detection of brain tumors, cardiovascular and other aspects of the disease is a kind of high sensitivity and good accuracy of the examination means, in the developed countries and developed areas in China, some of which have been the PET / CT technology as an effective screening tumor, brain and cardiovascular disease. Malignant tumors such as early detection, can be cured.

75 why is called PET and PET/CT to detect the tumor "radar" or "detective" found in the tumor?

Each disease undergoes a process of gene mutation, abnormal metabolism, and morphological change. The traditional methods of X-ray plain film, ultrasound, CT and MRI can not find the "early diagnosis", which can be found at the stage of "change of the disease". PET and PET/CT can more accurately reflect the physiological and metabolic activities of human normal or abnormal, reflect the pathophysiological changes of human existence of tumor at the molecular level, significantly improve the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment of rationality. PET and PET/CT are the most perfect imaging diagnostic methods, the highest grade of malignant tumor, the full realization of the tumor diagnosis of "four" target: "positioning": the discovery of lesions and lesion. "Qualitative": a clear display of morphological and functional changes in the pathological and pathophysiological properties. Quantification: quantifying the changes in morphology and function of disease or disease. "Regular": determining the stage of disease development.

76 what is the clinical value of PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer?

If you're an early cancer patient, you don't know? If you are a cancer patients do not know the extent of progress? If you are being treated with chemotherapy or radiation, do you want to know if it works? If you are a tumor after surgery, patients do not know whether recurrence? Well, PET and PET/CT will tell you a lot......

A. early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of malignant tumor or lesion: metabolic activity specifically PET imaging using positron tracers in malignant tumor, sensitive, can show early metabolic changes in cancer tissue, achieve early diagnosis of cancer.

B. is an accurate clinical staging of tumors: tumor staging is an important basis for the treatment of patients. PET / CT imaging for patients, a PET / CT imaging can provide the brain, lung, lymph nodes, liver, adrenal gland and bones and other body organs have no transfer of information, is beneficial to lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, ovarian cancer and lymphoma and other tumors for accurate clinical staging.

C. is helpful to guide or adjust the clinical treatment plan: PET / CT can differentiate tumor necrosis, fibrosis and residual or recurrence after chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. It can be used to detect the effect of tumor treatment (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy) by observing the changes of special metabolism of cancer tissue before and after treatment. Patients with tumor metastasis have been identified by PET / CT, and can be used to find the primary tumor.

D. helps to develop a cancer radiotherapy program: PET / CT can help radiologists to delineate more reasonable biological targets to help develop radiotherapy plans.

77 why is nuclear medicine imaging very safe?

In the process of nuclear medical imaging examination, only a small amount of intravenous drug is needed, and no other pain is needed. The drug injection is a short half-life of the isotope, the radioactive isotope is extremely low, and decays quickly, completely from the human body disappeared in ten minutes to several hours. For example: through large-scale clinical investigation, do a PET/CT examination, the patient received by radionuclide radiation caused by only a X light examination of 1/10.

78 why do you say that PET, PET/CT examination for patients to save medical costs?

In the hospital, if you encounter not again CT nuclear magnetic resonance X-RAY ultrasound biochemistry examination of torture, wasted valuable time, a lot of energy and expensive medical costs, some people even pay the price of life...... a large number of domestic and foreign economics research results show that if a comprehensive analysis of PET and PET/CT examined the cost and benefit, PET, PET/CT examination can save medical costs significantly. Because the PET/CT examination can be a more accurate diagnosis of patients, so that patients receive timely and effective treatment, to avoid a lot of inappropriate examination, misdiagnosis and treatment results from the overall saves medical expenses. At the same time, reduce the pain of patients due to improper diagnosis and treatment, improve the quality of life. Due to the obvious advantages of PET/CT in saving medical costs, in the United States and Western Europe, many Health Insurance Company are willing to pay PET/CT in cancer and heart disease inspection fees for patients according to the survey, only PET/CT in tumor check a per year for American medical insurance to save at least $200 million.

79 PET, PET/CT is mainly applicable to the crowd?

The tumor is one of the main causes of human death, its occurrence, development is a process from gene mutation, after reading abnormalities, metabolic abnormalities, dysfunction, abnormal structure and finally to clinical symptoms. When clinical symptoms showed, most patients have been in advanced tumors, lost the best opportunity for treatment the. When the tumor at an early stage can be cured to discover basic; tumor found in advanced treatment, they were four, the condition deteriorated sharply, cancer cells are like the breaching of the dike flood, a trend which cannot be halted to spread. High-tech PET, PET/CT got us early tumor provides modern means for the high position, the working pressure of the middle-aged, the elderly or people who have family history of cancer, health guarantee PET, PET/CT examination regularly. In addition to maternal PET, PET/ CT is suitable for any crowd, such as diabetic patients with autonomic or unable to maintain the stability of the patients (such as children) is required to inform the doctor, take corresponding measures for the party, can be checked.

80 healthy never find disease began what is the significance?

Two patients, one for many years adhere to a physical examination. When the body was found to have a small lung shadow, was diagnosed with lung cancer, and then do the surgery, physical condition has been good. Another in recent years, always cough, always thought that the old problem of bronchitis. Recently, however, their physical condition is getting worse, to the hospital for examination, the results were diagnosed with advanced lung cancer, modern medicine has been powerless. Two patients suffering from the same disease, but there is a world of difference. The reason is that patients with good prognosis through regular physical examination, early detection and early treatment of tumors. The pharmaceutical industry there is an old saying "don't treat the disease, is found no sense of self but has occurred disease, early treatment. Medical treatment is not disease, there is no clear boundary between health and disease. A person's body may be lurking pathological defects or dysfunction, and the surface is still very "health", when the body is in health and non health "critical" state, timely examination will be able to grasp the best time for disposal. If the early detection and timely treatment, the cure rate of various malignant tumors will be significantly improved. For example, the 5 year survival rate of early gastric cancer surgery is as high as more than 90%, while in the middle and late stages of surgery, the survival rate of is only 8%~17%, the cure rate of breast cancer is about 90%, and the cure rate is less than 50%. Other chronic diseases wait until symptoms appear, not only serious complications and organ damage, but also very difficult to treat. The awesome thing is that some early malignant tumor is generally asymptomatic, easily overlooked, be obvious symptoms and signs, often has to advanced disease, missed the best time for treatment. According to statistics, at present, in China, to achieve a regular physical examination of less than 2%. From the point of view of preventive medicine, all healthy people should at least once a year to participate in a health examination, sub-health crowd should be so.

Malignant tumor incidence rate in China is 0.12%, that is to say, every minute there are 2-3 people being diagnosed with cancer or died of cancer, it has become the first killer of Chinese residents. WHO pointed out that 1 / 3 of malignant tumors can be prevented, the effective treatment of 1 / 3, 1 / 3 can be conservative treatment. As long as the active prevention, early detection and appropriate treatment can reduce the risk of cancer, cancer cure is possible. Today, with the development of modern science and technology, the body of the whole body of three-dimensional transparent image let us clearly identify the lesions of a certain organ which is expected to detect the tumor "God eye" --PET, PET/CT.

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