To understand how to prevent hepatitis B must first understand its main mode of transmission, generally speaking, there are several ways:1,
To understand how to prevent hepatitis B must first understand its main mode of transmission, generally speaking, there are several ways:
1, infants infected with hepatitis B virus, mainly due to vertical transmission of mother and child. In the perinatal period, suffering from hepatitis B pregnant women late in pregnancy (pregnancy at the end of three months), a few will be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta, and in the process of delivery of the birth canal the maternal and fetal blood after birth lactation mother infant contact and close contact is the most common way of mother to child transmission..
2, adolescents and adults are the main route of transmission of body fluids and blood. Generally can be divided into the following several ways: blood transfusion spread: in the past more common, but now more and more strict blood management, so the transmission of hepatitis B infection has been extremely rare. The iatrogenic transmission: mainly through some medical interventional operation, for example, catheters, stents, intubation hemodialysis treatment and so on, but also the aspects of the operation are strictly controlled, so in this way the infection is relatively small. The skin / mucosa wound way: for example, improper needle heart of hepatitis B patients blood tied to the nurse who, after the blood spread to pierce the skin of blood; or in the absence of disinfection and isolation measures to regulate the small clinic (the most common dental clinics), beauty salons or Pedicure stores do invasive operation such as tattoo eyebrow, eyeliner or Pedicure caused by infection; in addition, the spread of hepatitis B virus infection and sharing a toothbrush, razor, intravenous drug needles may cause hepatitis B. The spread of a close contact with body fluids are also seen in recent years, due to clinical unprotected marital or extramarital sexual contact caused by acute hepatitis B virus infection cases increased, hepatitis B has been defined as a sexually transmitted infection.
Clear the way of transmission of hepatitis B, to prevent hepatitis B virus infection can take the following ways:
1 vaccines and hepatitis B immune globulin: from the beginning of the 1990s, our country has the neonatal hepatitis B vaccine into the immunization program, this measure has the neonatal hepatitis B virus infection in China is below 1%. To carry the hepatitis B virus in pregnant women after birth except the whole hepatitis B vaccine, also must be within 12 hours after the birth of injection of hepatitis B immune globulin, can achieve a better effect in the prevention of mother to child transmission. For adults, with high risk of hepatitis B virus infection (such as medical workers, sexual partners have hepatitis B virus infection etc.) can be inoculated with hepatitis B vaccine and ordinary adults do not recommend widespread vaccination.
2 drug prevention: has mentioned, HBV carrying a small part of the pregnant women (especially in viral load higher in late pregnancy) may directly cause infection of the fetus through the placenta, even if the fetus was born after injection of hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin may also lead to immune failure. That study at home and abroad in recent years, the serum HBV titer of DNA was higher (more than 106 to 108 copies / ml), during pregnancy at the end of the 3 month of pregnancy the high safety of some oral antiviral drugs (such as tenofovir, lamivudine, telbivudine), combined with the neonatal immunization program, can reach 95% ~ the protection rate of 100%.
3 personal hygiene behavior adjustment: mainly in the risk prevention of hepatitis B virus blood exposure, drug abuse, sexual promiscuity, abandon the bad behavior; in itself does not produce the whole injection of hepatitis B vaccine protection case with hepatitis B virus infection of sexual contact should use condom; to avoid non medical institutions, formal beauty hospital and Pedicure shop of invasive operation; avoid hepatitis B infection common blood contact equipment life possible, such as toothpaste, toothbrushes, floss and razor. But it should be emphasized that the normal life, work, study, entertainment and even touch hands, hug, eat together, and so will not be infected with hepatitis B, no need to worry.
4 emergency prevention of hepatitis B virus in blood after exposure: hepatitis B virus contaminated needles stabbed himself in the skin or mucous membrane (i.e. blood exposure), should first fully squeeze the wound in tap water water, try to squeeze the wound may be contaminated with blood, and painless iodine disinfection wound; if they have clear injection of hepatitis B the vaccine also produces protective antibodies, without further processing; on the other hand, should be exposed within 24 hours after the injection of hepatitis B immune globulin and vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine, and were exposed in the day and after exposure to 3, 6 and 9 months under the guidance of a doctor andreview. After treatment, the protection rate of nearly 100%.