Seasonal main nail hepatitis hepatitis A and E, and distributing throughout the year significantly during winter and spring; non seasonal ma
Seasonal main nail hepatitis hepatitis A and E, and distributing throughout the year significantly during winter and spring; non seasonal mainly refers to the hepatitis B and C, hepatitis D, distributing throughout the year but no significant seasonal peak. Needs to be emphasized is that although sporadic hepatitis A and e significantly during winter and spring, but the epidemic of influenza and hepatitis often occurs in tropical and subtropical / temperate monsoon in summer and autumn. The absolute number of sporadic patients in the general level over the years, and the relationship between the incidence of different patients; the absolute number of pop patients was significantly higher than the general level over the years, and the incidence of different patients are related.
The basic mode of transmission of hepatitis A and E are fecal oral transmission. Hepatitis A virus infects only humans and primates but limited animal; hepatitis E virus host range more widely, not only infect human and primate animal, also infected livestock, poultry and livestock, such as pigs, chickens, horses etc.. Virus replication in liver cells, through the bile duct into the bile duct and then into the intestinal tract, with the feces of infected patients in vitro. In five hepatitis B virus known, the strongest resistance of hepatitis A virus, which can survive for a long time in acidic or alkaline and low temperature, but sensitive to UV light and the environment; hepatitis E virus resistance is relatively weak, rapid death left intestinal alkaline environment after cryopreservation, but long-term survival. Therefore, the main mode of transmission of sporadic hepatitis including contact, food and communication; the main mode of transmission of sporadic hepatitis E limited to food spread. The spread of the main mode of transmission of epidemic hepatitis A and E are water. Is spread through fecal contamination caused by hand and goods, are called direct or indirect contact transmission; spread of fecal contamination caused by food, food is spread; spread by fecal contamination caused by water, water is spread.
The main population of human influenza and hepatitis were teenagers and young, elderly hepatitis a rare but common hepatitis E. Hepatitis A and e latency (time from infection to disease) were 3 ~ 8 and 2 ~ 6 weeks. The first showed fever, fatigue and loss of appetite, there may be severe nausea and vomiting; the frequency of hepatitis A and e fever were 80% and 40%; the temperature less than 39 DEG C, the duration is 1 to 2 days, a 3 ~ 5 days, individual up to 1 weeks. Fatigue and loss of appetite usually lasted 5 to 7 days and from 7 to 10 days. Some patients with urine in 1 weeks after the onset, reddish brown, and skin, yellow sclera. And will not appear in the skin, yellow sclera were known as jaundice and hepatitis without jaundice; if fatigue, loss of appetite for more than 3 weeks, the skin, yellow sclera progressively more than 2 weeks, should be considered in severe hepatitis may. The further development of severe hepatitis can lead to hepatitis, which is the main type of disease that leads to the death of hepatitis patients. The natural history of hepatitis A and E were 2 ~ 4 and 4 ~ 8 weeks; the mortality rate was 0.1% ~ 0.3% and 1% ~ 3%.
Once diagnosed with seasonal hepatitis, hospitalization is required. The hospital has three purposes: first, isolation, influenza and hepatitis were infectious disease, the infectious period of 3 to 6 weeks after the onset of the disease, isolation and treatment can help prevent the spread of disease and family protection; second, need support and symptomatic treatment, symptomatic treatment can relieve pain, help support treatment to the recovery of the disease; third, to observe the condition, there is tendency of severe hepatitis patients, early detection and early treatment can prevent the progression of the disease and reduce the risk of death. Seasonal hepatitis usually does not require antiviral therapy.
Seasonal infectious disease specific preventive measures are: two in the peak season, if infected with the contact, can take passive immunization, namely vaccination immune globulin to reduce the incidence of; in the peak season before, no contact with infected persons, can take active immunity, namely vaccination to prevent infected. Inoculation of immunoglobulin has a preventive effect on hepatitis, but no preventive effect on hepatitis. There have been available hepatitis A vaccine, but has not been proven effective vaccine of hepatitis E. Therefore, hepatitis can be prevented by active and passive immunization of hepatitis E, but no reliable method of active and passive immunization. The prevention of seasonal hepatitis, especially hepatitis E nonspecific preventive measures, to develop good health habits, especially hand washing and eating cooked food is still the most basic preventive measures.