Hepatitis C is an infection caused by hepatitis C virus. It has few significant symptoms, but usually in the form of persistent infection, r
Hepatitis C is an infection caused by hepatitis C virus. It has few significant symptoms, but usually in the form of persistent infection, resulting in progressive increase in the number of liver scar tissue, leading to cirrhosis of the liver. Some patients with cirrhosis will develop life-threatening hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic decompensation, and portal hypertension.
Hepatitis C virus infects only humans and chimpanzee, mainly through blood and blood products. Intravenous drug use is the main mode of transmission of hepatitis C, followed by manicure, pedicure, tattoo, again is sexual intercourse and childbirth; without strict disinfection of medical supplies can also cause infection. Kissing, breastfeeding does not cause hepatitis C virus infection.
Two clinical types of acute and chronic hepatitis C. Approximately 20% and 80% of HCV infection will develop into acute and chronic hepatitis C. Unlike a and B, hepatitis, acute hepatitis C is only about 15% of the patients had mild or non obvious and vague or uncertain symptoms, including fatigue, muscle pain, nausea, loss of appetite; most of the patients without jaundice, almost no patients will develop liver failure. Among them, 10% ~ 50% of patients will heal. Predictors of acute hepatitis C toward self healing before sexual maturation and women.
Although chronic hepatitis C can have mild or no significant fatigue, most patients do not appear to be associated with liver disease for decades. Once symptoms occur, most patients have cirrhosis. For more than 30 years of chronic hepatitis C, up to 30% of patients will develop cirrhosis of the liver. Co infection, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus or alcoholism and men are additional factors in chronic hepatitis C cirrhosis. In patients with chronic hepatitis C who have cirrhosis, the chance of developing hepatocellular carcinoma is 20 times higher than that of patients without cirrhosis, and the annual incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is from 1% to 3%. Globally, approximately 27% of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma are caused by chronic hepatitis C ().
Liver cirrhosis and / or hepatocellular carcinoma is the main reason for compensation and / or portal hypertension in liver failure. Decompensated liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are two major liver related syndromes that lead to a patient's life, work, study, and eventual death. Hepatic decompensation mainly for persistent and repeated exacerbations of hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice), hypoproteinemia (edema) and hepatic encephalopathy (mental consciousness disorder); portal hypertension is mainly of esophageal and gastric varices (vein dilation and vascular wall thinning, ascites (abdominal) effusion) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (bacterial peritonitis caused by other ingredients).
Hepatitis C may also be associated with a number of extrahepatic diseases. So far, the reported diseases related to hepatitis C include Sjogren's syndrome, lichen planus, prurigo nodularis, B cell lymphoid hyperplasia, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, glomerulonephritis, cold precipitation, precipitation was globulinemia etc..