With cancer awareness gradually increased, more and more women understand that to do screening for early detection and treatment of cancer.
With cancer awareness gradually increased, more and more women understand that to do screening for early detection and treatment of cancer. Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumor in cancer, the screening method has gradually been understood by the majority of female friends, namely TCT and HPV detection, but how to properly carry out the screening of many people may not know, here I will introduce a cervical cancer screening program.
First introduces the meaning of TCT and HPV detection.
Cervical cancer is so far only known in all cancer etiology of cancer, this killer is HPV, namely, human papilloma virus, especially the persistent infection of high-risk HPV, high-risk types of HPV include 16, 18, 31, 33, 35 and so on. Women in the life of a high probability of infection with HPV, but most of them are a transient infection, through their own immunity to remove these viruses, so not all people infected with HPV will get cervical cancer. But if there is persistent infection of high-risk HPV, will lead to cervical squamous epithelium gradually undergo malignant transformation, first from the bottom of the epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, clinically called CIN, which is cervical precancerous lesions, develop gradually to the whole epithelial layer, namely carcinoma in situ. The disease continues to develop, and the invasion of the epithelial layer to the subepithelial stroma is called invasive carcinoma.
From HPV infection to CIN to cervical cancer is a very slow process, it takes about 10-20 years, any one in premalignant and processing nodes found can be truncated to cervical cancer, so the cervical cancer is preventable and treatable. The role of HPV detection is to detect the presence of HPV, especially high-risk HPV infection.
TCT (TCT) is the surface of the cervix and cervical canal cells by cervical brush, then rinse in preservation solution, the cells were transferred to the preservation solution, will save the liquid bottle instrument will sample cells through mixing, filtering, automatic transfer into the cell, the attached to the slide on. The slides were stained film fixed, finally diagnosis were observed under the microscope is found whether cervical epithelial lesions occur.
TCT screening should start at the age of 21 years, 21-29 years old women with a single cytological examination, it is best to do TCT examination every 3 years, not once a year.
30-65 year old women recommend TCT+HPV joint screening, every 5 years; also can choose to separate TCT examination, every 3 years, not every year screening.
Women over the age of 65 years in the previous 10 years, a total of three consecutive TCT negative or continuous negative screening of the joint TCT+HPV, and the last examination in the past 5 years, can stop screening in the past two years.
If you have been removed by other lesions of the uterus and cervix, that is, patients who have undergone hysterectomy, no previous history of CIN2 and above lesions, no need for screening.
If you have a history of CIN2-3 grade lesions, in the 20 years after treatment, should continue to be screened by age group, even if more than 65 years old.
Women with HIV / AIDS and those who are immunosuppressed (such as those who need long term oral anti rejection after organ transplantation) should be screened for a lifetime.
Through the above introduction, I believe we have a clear understanding of cervical cancer screening interval. If TCT or HPV examination results are abnormal, and how to deal with it, in the next article, I will detail, please look forward to.
The conclusions of this article are derived from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG, American of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) January 2016 release of cervical cancer screening and prevention practice guidelines.