According to WHO (WHO) reported that the world's annual incidence of cervical cancer 4..5 million people, of which 135 thousand cases of new
According to WHO (WHO) reported that the world's annual incidence of cervical cancer 4..5 million people, of which 135 thousand cases of new cases each year, accounting for about 1/3 of the world. In recent years, due to increased human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the incidence of cervical cancer increased significantly and tends to younger. The latest research shows that due to cervical cancer has long, reversible precancerous stage, early detection and timely treatment of patients with cervical cancer after five years, the cure rate has reached 90%, the cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable disease. Therefore, screening and prevention of cervical cancer has important significance.
1 traditional manual methods (Pap smear) was invented by the Greek physician Papanicolaou (Pap), in 1940s to start screening for cervical cancer. Because of its simple method, no pain, and low cost, it is very suitable for a wide range of population census, has been used for nearly half a century, some places are still in use.
Methods: by the obstetrician with a cork scraper, gently scraping acquisition in cervical exfoliated cells, coated on glass slides after staining after treatment by pathological observation under a microscope diagnosis. Disadvantages: false negative rate is higher misdiagnosis rate.
2.CCT - a computer assisted reading system developed by the United States is called the "brain neural network simulation system" for scanning traditional Pap smear, that is, CCT. However, statistical studies show that the sensitivity of the screening system is lower than that of experienced professionals, so the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved it only for laboratory quality control. After 2000, CCT has been replaced by a new generation of automatic scanning system.
3.TCT ThinPrep cytology detection mainly due to the traditional Papanicolaou smears of misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis is one of the cell loss were smear and poor quality, and the emergence of new 1990s PAT'S TCT (TCT).
Methods: the doctors collected the cells into the cell with the cell preservation liquid, and the production process was controlled by the computer program. The main steps are: cell mix; cell negative pressure collection; cell transfer. The advantage is to remove the impurities, the formation of a clear cell monolayer smear, pathologists can be seen at a glance, so that the diagnosis of cervical cancer, especially precancerous lesions significantly increased.
In addition, TCT can also be used directly for the detection of human papillomavirus gene.
4 detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) gene at high risk
The present data show that HPV infection is the major cause of cervical cancer and cervical precancerous lesions and 99.8% cervical cancer patients can be found in the HPV virus, was approved in the clinical use of the detection of HPV infection with hybrid capture method.
Methods: using a special collection of small brush cells in cervical, patients without injury and pain. The accuracy of this method is very high, but because of high costs, usually only in high-risk groups.
5 colposcopy when cervical cytology smears found abnormal, it is necessary to do colposcopy to determine the lesion, if necessary, take a few pieces of tissue to send pathological examination, provide the basis for surgical treatment.
6 human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine as a major risk factor for cervical cancer is the human papilloma virus infection, so the basic method is used vaccine, including preventive vaccines and therapeutic vaccines in the near future, will become a human cervical cancer through immunization method to comprehensive prevention and eradication of malignant tumor