Jian HuaRight now, there are all kinds of diabetes. Arguably, diabetes should be "good friends". However, the actual situation is uneven in
Right now, there are all kinds of diabetes. Arguably, diabetes should be "good friends". However, the actual situation is uneven in quality products, often dazzling, accidentally fall into the trap. The seriousness of the problem is that the damage caused by diabetes is often irreversible, once the formation of complications, most difficult to restore. Therefore, the economic loss is still in the second, if the disease is aggravated or induced complications, it is definitely not the money can be redeemed or compensated. As far as the author is concerned, we discuss and analyze it.
What is diabetes? What are the main hazards and complications?
According to the definition of WHO (WHO), diabetes is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism due to human insulin resistance and secretion or a combination of the two cause. In other words, is the process of the patient's body to produce energy in sugar or liver tissue surrounding the intracellular transporter, due to reduction or the ability of insulin and the occurrence of pathological delay and efficiency decrease or pause. So, when (1) patients in the food starch is decomposed into single sugar molecules (or can not be absorbed into the blood); (2) need sugar stored in the body of the reason (to maintain blood glucose, motion) and decomposition; (3) protein (amino acid) or glyceryl fatty into the sugar (a way of energy metabolism), will cause the blood volume, namely blood glucose.
The main harm of this pathology is three:
Hyperglycemia toxicity". A type of harm caused by blood sugar over a normal period of time. The latest experiment, when it reached the lowest 7mmol/L, lasted more than 2 hours can cause vascular endothelial injury or degeneration (Hilbert chromosomal abnormalities or tissue hyalinization), resulting in fundus and kidney small vascular rich organ involvement, itchy skin, stomach, intestine, bladder and other organs rich in peripheral nerve paresis water and electrolyte disorders and a series of complications;
The other is fat metabolism. The main reason is that sugar can not be converted into energy in time, so that the body must break down the body's stored fat or protein to replace (or life will stop). At the same time, the energy produced by the delayed decomposition of sugar can be converted to fat for energy storage. Therefore, the synthesis and catabolism of fat are both accelerated and constantly repeated, in the form of lipoprotein or fat particles in the blood vessels. Results the rapid pollution of large blood vessels (fat deposition or attachment) and directly lead to blood viscosity, slow flow, resulting in high blood fat, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, heart, brain, limb and other large vascular complications. This pathological process although the total heat or excessive fat intake can also lead to, but because of the existence of diabetic patients carbohydrate metabolic disorders (forced a lot of fat, so the capacity) than other diseases appear faster, more likely to harm is greater. At the same time, due to fat metabolism must have sugar produced by the decomposition of ethyl oxalate and other substances to complete combustion, otherwise it will produce three hydroxy acid, lactic acid and ketones. So, when too much carbohydrate or fat production capacity is too small to a certain extent, can also cause serious complications of diabetic ketoacidosis;
Third, excessive consumption of protein or excessive metabolism. Under normal circumstances, the human body to absorb the protein must first meet the construction of human tissue, excess or the human body can not be used to reuse part of the conversion of heat. Diabetes, due to the lack of energy conversion of sugar is often insufficient, it will cause a lot of protein consumption and metabolism. As a result, not only constitutes a human tissue protein decomposition (such as muscle), also causes the body's normal tissue renewal, damage repair, immune material synthesis due to lack of sufficient raw material and pause or reduced ability to cause weight loss (muscle reduction), wound healing, infection is not long the tumor, anemia and other a series of complications of diabetes. In addition, the concentration of protein in the blood is too high can also directly caused the increase of blood viscosity caused by cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (such as hyperhomocysteinemia etc.); protein decomposition at the same time, resulting in the increase of urea nitrogen and nitrogen waste (not because of reduced intake and reduce) and increase the burden on the kidneys.
That is, the treatment of diabetes, at least need to reduce or control the blood sugar, to correct the fat and protein metabolism disorders, such as three aspects of work. Among them, protein, fat and carbohydrate intake control is to correct the energy metabolism dysfunction in patients with the most main methods, hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, improving islet function, exercise, control and reduce blood glucose monitoring and related indicators after the meal is to ensure the safety of blood glucose in patients with important means.
Numerous studies have shown that diabetes can only be controlled, but not cured.
Two, the basic requirements of diabetic food
1, can help patients achieve their needs of energy control objectives
A large number of experimental studies have shown that there is no significant difference between the nutritional needs of diabetic patients and healthy people. The only difference is that due to the existence of diabetic patients carbohydrate metabolism, thus can cause the disorder of energy metabolism, resulting in various complications. Therefore, the treatment of diabetes and the prevention and treatment of complications must be adjusted and controlled by all kinds of energy substances, in order to terminate or delay the metabolic disorder. Otherwise, it is normal blood glucose, can not avoid the occurrence of complications.
For example: carbohydrate intake, not only need more hypoglycemic drugs, blood sugar is able to control can lead to patients with obesity. While obesity itself is a direct cause of diabetes and its complications; too much fat (vicious spiral) itself is a direct risk factor for cardiovascular disease, although available lipid-lowering drugs reduce the risk, but the liver and kidney damage, which will lead to lipid peroxidation and a series of adverse reaction of the patients often carbohydrate (one disaster after another; sugar intake) for glycemic control, although beneficial, but the excessive fat and protein metabolism (caused by lipid and plasma protein does not necessarily increase), but can greatly increase the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (such as lipid-lowering therapy cannot solve this problem), can also lead to wound healing, infection, not long tumor, anemia and other complications of protein deficiency.
Therefore, the development of the history of diabetes treatment is closely related to the energy of the patient's diet. For example: at present a considerable number of patients that, as long as the control of blood glucose, everything will be Everything will be fine.. Modern medicine has also been to control blood sugar as the key to the treatment of diabetes. So, until the 20s of last century is completely based on hunger therapy. In order to avoid the impact of food on blood sugar and reduce the intake of patients. The result, a large number of patients with serious complications of hypoglycemia, protein malnutrition and ketoacidosis etc.. After 20s, the method was changed to simply limit staple food. Namely: to reduce carbohydrate intake of ideas have not changed, just hope by increasing fat and protein intake to prevent and treat malnutrition. However, the results have led to a large number of patients with premature death due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, to the late 50s began to explore ways to improve carbohydrate intake, and gradually stabilized in the total thermal energy 55%-60%. At the same time, the proportion of fat to total heat gradually reduced to 25-30%. In mid 90s, the control effect of this method for blood glucose and plasma triglyceride is often poor, therefore caused the medical profession for a large number of different degree of saturated fat, to clear the 2000 ratio should be 1:1:1, diet therapy of diabetes began to steady. The American Diabetes Association and the National Institutes of Health jointly issued guidelines for the diabetes diet. The guidelines also suggest that protein intake should account for 15%-20% of total heat energy or 1.2 grams per kilogram of body weight per day, and the quality of protein should account for more than 1/3.
That is: in the face of a multitude of names, overhyped diabetic food, patients must have the ability to distinguish between nutritional and non nutritional role, not only to benefit from harm, The loss outweighs the gain. For example: the individual ingredients from food or some natural plants may contribute to hypoglycemic or improve islet function, but before it has not been purified or extracted, possibly accompanied by other substances are not necessarily for the disease can be directly beneficial or elevated postprandial blood glucose. If used indiscriminately, is likely to lead to other results and Bob hope. Buckwheat currently occupies an important position in the food market still diabetes so, so Chinese herbal pumpkins and other coarse grains, is the classic treatment of diabetes drugs such as Chinese yam, tuckahoe, Gorgon etc.. Therefore, from food or nature is not a safe pronoun.
3, can help patients get a relatively slow rate of postprandial blood glucose appreciation
Although the technology has hypoglycemic treatment is very rich and diverse, but because the carbohydrate food absorption caused by the rapid blood glucose rise rapidly, will still cause great difficulties to the treatment. Therefore, when the patients were diagnosed with diabetes, were told not to eat directly almost without exception (which can be absorbed directly, and then quickly increase blood sugar). At the same time, due to the difficulty of dealing with the status of the operation and drug prices are often relatively high, so it will bring heavy economic burden on patients, inconvenience and other restrictions on the application. Therefore, regardless of the economy, operability, the convenience of life and other aspects of the patient to consider, to reduce or slow down the rate of postprandial blood glucose appreciation has a positive meaning. More benefits is that since almost all the diabetic patients had different degrees of still having the islet function or carbohydrate metabolism, slow down the speed often means the same amount of carbohydrate intake is less likely to form in the blood volume, so can save on hypoglycemic drugs and their costs. Not only that, but the side effects of drugs can also be mitigated or exempted.
However, it is not easy to clarify its mechanism and value. For example, a large number of clinical practice has long been found: different diabetes patients with the same food, postprandial blood glucose changes are different. At the same time, different food intake of carbohydrate with a diabetic patient with the same number and types of the postprandial blood glucose changes will also appear very different. This problem not only brings difficulties to the clinical risk of hypoglycemia and hypoglycemic treatment need stable postprandial blood glucose, but also to the patient's life, the diversity of food sources need nutrition to meet the requirements, and the direct control of hyperglycemia toxicity greatly limit. To illustrate this phenomenon, nutrition in the last century in 80s invented a very famous "post prandial glycemic index" evaluation method, used to describe and quantify the postprandial blood glucose rise ability of different foods. However, it has not been widely recognized by the medical profession. Therefore, since the 1981 Canada University of Toronto nutrition professor Dr. David Ks and his colleagues, in 66 kinds of food glycemic tests when the first public use of the method, to 1997, the FAO and the WHO also officially affirmed its significance for the 15 years, many nutritionists paid the hard work and effort. The reason is because this method not only can be used to guide the patients in the selection of different foods, can conveniently obtain similar postprandial blood glucose, so as to lay the foundation for further improving glycemic control effect, quality, safety and stability. At the same time also revealed that when patients with diabetes still has certain islet function or carbohydrate metabolism, can through intervention, control and adjust the carbohydrate after digestion into the blood speed and dosage, reduce the amount of carbohydrate intake during the postprandial blood glucose. So as to lay the foundation for the treatment of diabetes with more ways, more convenient, cheaper and safer.
At present, nutrition has made it clear that individually or in combination to increase the amount of dietary fiber, protein, fat and other food ingredients can effectively delay the carbohydrate diet in patients with diabetes into the blood by the speed of digestion. The same effect can also contain different kinds of carbohydrate foods, as well as by selecting the control rate of other related nutrients and other food components or structure and reduce the starch in foods such as sugar digestible processing method, the degree of Shaoshiduocan way and.
Again, this reduces postprandial blood glucose that must be established in a variety of nutritional intake in patients with comprehensive, can meet and support the corrective and prevention of patients with disorders of energy metabolism and life needs of the various intake above has practical significance. At the same time, because each patients with residual islet function or carbohydrate metabolism are different, so it may not be able to obtain satisfactory or lower postprandial blood glucose. Therefore, this method can not completely replace the hypoglycemic drugs, the treatment process still need to be evaluated by blood glucose monitoring, and then according to the characteristics of their blood glucose changes and the use of appropriate hypoglycemic methods.
Therefore, the level of postprandial blood glucose alone is not sufficient to evaluate its role, contribution, or value in the treatment of diabetes. For example: most beans because contain carbohydrate difficult digestible starch (linear), and contains a high proportion of carbohydrate can reduce the absorption rate of protein, fat and dietary fiber with material. Therefore, the blood glucose after meals will generally be more digestible than the starch (branched), and the proportion of the majority of more than 70% of the food, such as cereals are much lower. But if the intake is not reasonable or not with other food collocation and common energy needed to achieve the control objectives of patients, treatment will not only contribute to diabetes, even in too much will caused by excessive fat, high protein level, extrusion cooking oil and a series of problems. For example, the protein content is generally not more than 10% (wheat flour is more than 10%), starch and carbohydrate than most of wheat and rice is low, but high dietary fiber content is relatively (not peeling or not when buckwheat, wheat bran), buckwheat, oats and other coarse grains were included in the past most of poor nutrition food the postprandial blood glucose generally smaller in wheat flour, rice and other "white" is low. However, if you do not control the use of the same will be detrimental to patients with diabetes. In addition, long-term excessive intake of fiber, protein, vitamins, can hinder mineral elements, also for other food nutrition is very important human uptake, causing new problems or hazards.
Therefore, patients with diabetes must continue to strengthen learning, in order to better cooperate with doctors.
Three, common types of diabetes food and selection strategy
Unlike other diseases, the diet itself is an integral part of diabetes treatment. Because it must be associated with energy metabolism disorders and complications such as blood glucose related factors, so the patient involved in each meal or even every meal details. In other words, it is not easy to damage the diet, can be buffered like no other disease. At the same time, the extension of diet itself with pleasure, communication, media, and many other carriers such as nutrition, blood glucose and energy metabolism disorders such as diabetes treatment at any time will be independent, culture, habits, tastes, hobbies, mood, economy, environment, interference and influence even plausible and conditional factors of one-sided propaganda. Moreover, because the disease can not be cured, diet control may be accompanied by a patient's life. Therefore, to understand and master a certain amount of food and the use of methods, the patient is very important to calm the situation.
1, the natural state of natural food
All kinds of food under natural conditions by nutritional structure can be roughly divided into: cereal, potato, beans, vegetables, fruits, eggs, meat and dairy milk, fish, and even after the artificial extraction, but remained in the natural state of the sugar and salt, as people used. In addition, some of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine, such as Chinese yam, coix seed, Poria, Gorgon fruit, cassia seed, because the energy class contains more nutrition, in the extraction of non use, should also be treated as a natural food. This constitutes a major source of human nutrition. In fact, the so-called diabetes food is also based on these foods, artificial processing or nutrients to adjust. And because it is almost impossible for the patient to rely solely on the nutrients provided by the diabetic food to meet the needs, inadequate or not available, still need to supplement the natural food. The supplements may still have an impact on the patient's energy metabolism or blood sugar. Therefore, it is very necessary to understand the various nutrients and characteristics of these foods in order to meet the needs of their energy and other nutrients, as well as the need for blood glucose control by the combination of these foods. That is: energy in accordance with the requirements of diabetes treatment, postprandial blood glucose is relatively stable and as low as possible.
The specific operation can be through a variety of diabetic catering software, or the first generation support for the calculations, and on behalf of the diet design specific to all kinds of food raw materials (design to food recipes although convenient, but unfavorable for self adjustment, and patients) according to the corresponding "food exchange method" to adjust the application. If you calculate the food, please according to the authority of the state sector every few years will be published in the latest "food composition table", national representative value or value.
Note that all kinds of natural food under natural conditions, often because of the variety, origin, soil, climate, maturity, edible parts, influencing factors and processing methods, and there are great differences in the nutritive content of foods. "Food exchange method" because no two exactly the same food, will also occur in large deformation on the repeated process of. Although these factors can make up through the comprehensive nutrient rich food varieties, different meals or longer in balance, but because of its hypoglycemic treatment need every meal, so very easily lead to carbohydrate diet in patients with hypoglycemic method mismatch, resulting in poor efficacy of hypoglycemia or iatrogenic injury (medical experiments often require pre measured and control). In addition, due to the natural state of a variety of foods, nutrients in the content often do not necessarily meet the requirements of diabetes treatment. For example: meat and soybean protein provided but also contain a lot of fat, buckwheat dietary fiber but the protein quality and content as well as low titer, fat or protein quality and scale requirements limit. Therefore, not only the food mix process is complex, the impact on the lives of patients, the effect can not be guaranteed. In response to these circumstances, it is recommended that patients try to learn and master some of the food before and after processing, the change of nutrients in order to close to its energy control objectives. For example: meat fried increase fat, cooking fat, etc.. In addition, also can according to their own preferences, different kinds of postprandial glucose or nutritional value of food mixed in advance, to facilitate or reduce food sectors, optimize their life.
The glycemic index of common food after meal is as follows:
Sugars: glucose 100, sugar 83.8, sugar 65, sucrose, maltose 105, honey 73, 80, 49 chocolate jelly
Cereals and cereal products: noodles (wheat flour, noodles (wet) 81.6, whole wheat flour, noodles (fine) 37, wheat flour, dry, rough, flat noodles (46) to strengthen the protein, fine, Steamed Buns (boiled) 27, 88.1, 79.6, rich and powerful) Flapjack Deep-Fried Dough Sticks 74.9, rice porridge (general), 69.4 83.2 rice, brown, black, Steamed Rice 70 Steamed Rice 55 Glutinous rice, 87 rice, glutinous rice porridge, porridge, 65.3 black 42.3 (sweet corn, boiled cornmeal porridge (55), crude powder) 50.9, corn flakes (commercially available) 78.5, millet (Zhu Fan) 71, 61.5, 59.3 Millet Congee buckwheat noodles buckwheat noodles, Steamed Buns 66.7
Potato, starch and potato products: 62, potato (boiled) 66.4, potato (baked) 60, potato (steamed) 65, 73 (fried mashed potatoes, potato chips, potato vermicelli) 60.3, 13.6 sweet potato (red, boiled) 76.7, 60 French fries, 32.6
Beans and products: soy beans (soaked, boiled) 18, tofu (stewed) 31.9, tofu (frozen) 22.3, 23.7, 27.2, tofu bean bean (spiced) 16.9, 38, 39 green beans, lentils, black beans 42 Sauteed Green Beans 27, Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) 31, 33 Chickpea
Vegetables: Beet 64, 71 carrots, pumpkin, yam 51, 75 konjac snow 17, taro (steamed) 47.7, asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower, celery, cucumber, eggplant, fresh green beans, lettuce, lettuce, green peppers, tomatoes, spinach < 15
Fruits and fruit products: apple, pear, peach, apricot 36 28 31, 24, 22, cherry plum grape, grape (43 yellow, small, non nuclear) 56, 64, 52, raisins 43, kiwi orange grapefruit, pineapple 66, 25, 52, 55 mango banana banana (born 30), banana, watermelon, 53 72 pawpaw 58
Milk and dairy products: milk, 27.6 milk (sugar and chocolate) 34, whole milk, skim milk, 27 32, 11.9 26 low-fat milk powder milk powder, milk powder 40.8, aged 48, yogurt (sugar) 19, soy milk yogurt (general) 36
Convenience food: white bread (wholemeal bread, 87.9), 69 (70% ~ 80% bread wheat bread (45%), 34 ~ 50% oat bran) 47, bread (mixed grains) 45, baguette cracker 90, 72, 59, 55 popcorn pastries
A mixed diet: Steamed Buns + 48.6, celery fried egg cake + egg fried dumplings (three), 48.4 fungus, 28 buns (celery pork) 39.1, beef noodles, 88.6 + 37 + Steamed Rice Steamed Rice fish, stewed pork Braised Pork with Vermicelli 16.7, 73.3, 38, two tomato soup steamed corn bread 64.9
Reminder: the postprandial glycemic index of food represents only the ability to produce blood glucose, does not represent the value of postprandial blood glucose. In patients with postprandial glycemic level and islet function that depends mainly on carbohydrate metabolism, the other is also affected by the concomitant intake of food ingredients.
2, pre catering food
This kind of food is mostly through a variety of food collocation to the purpose to replace patients will need each other in the process of making collocation in the diet food prepared or produced, to simplify the operation link of patients or save time. As far as the effect is concerned, some can help patients to achieve the goal of dietary control more conveniently, some of which are to help patients get lower postprandial blood glucose. In the method, some simply mixing a variety of food, while others use the relatively advanced natural food ingredient separation and integration technology, all kinds of nutrients and various food ingredients can delay carbohydrate absorption through adjusting control, reconfiguration and stabilization. Therefore, a variety of food ingredients with more reasonable, postprandial blood glucose is relatively stable. In ordinary food control effect is not good when using, can consider to choose.
However, due to the different starting point, the difference between this type of food is also very large. For example: some emphasis on postprandial blood sugar, some emphasis on energy control, and some even focus on the taste. Therefore, the contents and sources of nutrients and the changes of postprandial blood glucose were not very different. The form is flour, biscuits, bread, dessert, Steamed Buns, Hanging noodles etc.. So, be sure to read the content of food composition table and other instructions carefully selected patients before, not by some so-called rich nutrition products (not standard), such as health temptation batch certification or publicity (currently China's food regulatory authorities have clearly defined, where diabetes related food must be labeled energy nutrients content). Then according to their eating habits or hobbies, will be incorporated into the catering food used to calculate, the lack of available ordinary things up.
It is important to note that energy intake is a key component of diabetes diet control, directly related to the correction and prevention of energy metabolism disorders. But because patients are carbohydrate metabolic disorders, it is a reasonable intake may also increase postprandial blood glucose. At this time, patients need to be used in conjunction with the use of hypoglycemic drugs or other kinds of hypoglycemic methods, in order to avoid drug use without authorization to change their dietary control standards. Otherwise, can only aggravate the disorder of energy metabolism and lead to less effective.
In addition, due to the use of ordinary food to achieve the goal of diabetes energy control is often complicated, the process of life for the patient's impact is relatively large, so until now the problem is still not resolved. As a result, in addition to the rapid growth of diabetes, the incidence of complications is high. For example: Although China has made significant progress in the treatment of diabetes in the past 30 years (insulin application). However, its incidence in China has increased from 0.609% in 1980 to about 3.4% in 2002, and is still increasing rapidly in the range of the country's annual rate of 1 million 500 thousand to 2 million. At the same time, China's adult overweight rate has reached 22.8%, obesity rate of up to 7.1%, the abnormal rate of blood lipids is to reach the level of 18.6%. In 2001, the Chinese Medical Association Diabetes Branch organized the provinces and cities in China to analyze the complications of 24496 hospitalized patients with diabetes in china. The results show that the chronic complications of diabetes are quite common. Among them, patients with hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, eye and kidney complications accounted for 1/3, compared with the previous statistical significant increase. A large study of glycated hemoglobin, which was designed to investigate the average blood glucose level of the patients over the past 3 months, showed that the rate of good blood sugar control in China was only about 10% of those surveyed. Among them, although there are many other relevant factors, but can not effectively control or manage the patient diet, can not be considered one of the very important reasons.
Therefore, the lack of ways to help patients achieve its goal in the diet management methods, in fact has become a serious constraint in China diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity and energy intake bottleneck on disease treatment and nutrition development. The pre catering food development, it can solve this problem. Therefore, it is urgent to develop and standardize.
3, low sugar and sugar free food
According to the survey: this kind of food labels attached to almost all food bags produced by the high carbohydrate content of cereals. However, according to the determination, in all kinds of food now used by man, in addition to not add any additives of cooked meat, almost no food does not contain carbohydrate, namely: sugar. Including the use of sausage meat processing and the formation of food. Therefore, the so-called sugar free, simply refers to the addition of sucrose, fructose, glucose and other commonly used sugar additives, does not mean that there is no starch and other substances that can raise blood sugar in diabetic patients. The concept of low sugar is also very vague, because there is no standard in our country, the high and low by the business said. So, were used before must carefully read the nutritional content of food table and other instructions, and then according to their own eating habits or hobbies, will be incorporated into the catering food use calculation. As for whether it is low sugar, it can be compared with ordinary food, self - understanding.
Attention is needed; a considerable part of these foods is not produced by the peeling of grain. Such as: buckwheat flour. But in comparison, businesses may induce you and after peeling the flour, such as wheat flour. However, because the two will be in the taste, the use of methods, nutritional value and other aspects of the existence of a difference, it is not a pair of items. Another: because the food may not be nutritionally balanced, the missing part of the need to use other food supplements, and the food supplement after the original advantage may not exist. For example: Although the buckwheat contains more dietary fiber, but it can not only meet the vegetables can provide vitamins and other nutrients, so still need to consume a certain amount of vegetables in order to meet the requirements of. The dietary fiber in these vegetables may have been able to meet the needs. The dietary fiber can improve postprandial blood glucose by delaying or preventing the absorption of sugar, but also can prevent because of protein and vitamins and mineral elements are also very important for other nutrients the body absorption caused by the problem. If the patient is used for a long time without taking measures, it will lead to disease.
The ability of these foods to produce blood glucose can generally be tested or evaluated by some simple test methods. Among them, the postprandial blood glucose production area comparison method is simple and reliable. Are described as follows:
(1) will need to compare two kinds of food, are weighed by the same carbohydrate content. There are 50 grams and 100 grams of medicine in the two methods. However, carbohydrate amount must be completely the same; (2) the production of food in the same way. That is exactly the same processing conditions (different processing methods have effects on blood sugar); (3) before each test 10 hours fasting carbohydrate. That is, if you test in the morning, don't eat the food you can raise your blood sugar (drink water) after dinner the day before. And in the test when times stop taking hypoglycemic drugs (to avoid interference); (4) the two test the best interval of 48 hours or more (to avoid interference); (5) the start of each test, the first test before the meal (fasting) blood glucose, and then in 15 minutes after eating the food. From the end of eating time, the order of test thirtieth, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 minutes of blood sugar and records; (6) the test can be used biochemical method, also can use handheld blood glucose meter method. However, the test of the two kinds of food should be consistent (or not comparable); (7) the post prandial blood glucose production area is a more scientific method for comparing and evaluating the ability of post prandial blood glucose generation among different foods. The food with the same pure glucose postprandial blood glucose increased the ratio of area of postprandial glycemic index called. The calculation of the value of blood sugar after meal, both the function method can be used, but also can be added to the area after 30 minutes of blood glucose appreciation. Postprandial blood glucose every 30 minutes the increment area is calculated as follows: (last blood glucose - fasting blood glucose value after blood glucose + value of fasting blood glucose value) x 30 / 2. Pre prandial blood glucose and blood glucose after thirtieth minutes to form a meal for first minutes interval; postprandial blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose for sixtieth minutes after the formation of the second minute interval of 30 minutes, thirtieth minutes after the meal for about 30 minutes. And so on。
4, hypoglycemic and related functional foods
Food contains not only nutrients, but also many other components of the nutrients. Some of these components can be used to improve some of the functions of the human body, so they are called functional components of food. Foods containing these ingredients are called functional foods. For example, it has been found that, in some food glycosides, flavonoids, isoflavones, polysaccharide, polysaccharide in dietary fiber has no nutritional value, but can improve islet function or help patients to reduce postprandial blood glucose. In addition, part of nutrients in recent years, there are some new findings. For example: polyunsaturated fatty acids to lipid, vitamin E can inhibit lipid peroxidation and trace elements in chromium, zinc and germanium in certain compounds can activate state islet function, insulin sensitivity improved. There are also some unknown ingredients that are said to be good for diabetes. However, if the patient's choice of products still contains a lot of heat, it must be included in the energy intake. Otherwise, it will lead to or exacerbate the energy metabolism disorder, and then induce complications. Because the patient's intake of functional substances and nutrients will also play a role.
For example, an individual species of pumpkin is said to contain certain substances that improve the function of the islets. At the same time because it contains higher carbohydrate and easily decomposed into simple sugars, therefore postprandial blood glucose is much higher than ordinary wheat flour. If patients use indiscriminately, will lead to loss of glycemic control.
In fact, the food contains functional substances, often because of very low purity and very weak role. Therefore, the traditional Chinese medicine therapy methods often need concentrated operation, such as: decoction or direct drug use efficiency "diet" and said. In the evaluation of the function of a substance, it is necessary to explain its dose effect relationship (curative effect). Therefore, the most basic definition of drugs and food is that the food is not limited and the drug must indicate its use. In addition, most of the lower blood glucose levels seen in cereals are not the so-called functional substances. Most of the protein, dietary fiber can reduce carbohydrate intake with digestion and absorption by the speed (if the patient still has the function of islet), once the separation effect disappeared or significantly reduce the intake of most.
So, in the face of a multitude of names, publicity of different diabetic food, patients must first understand their own needs, not only to benefit from harm, The loss outweighs the gain.
I hope this article is helpful for patients with diabetes.