Some people talk about hormones change, refused to use hormone; some people do not know what hormone. To uncover the mysterious veil of horm
Some people talk about hormones change, refused to use hormone; some people do not know what hormone. To uncover the mysterious veil of hormones.
There are three kinds of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex: mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoids, and a small amount of sex hormones. This article refers to the "hormone" for glucocorticoid.
When people are in critical situations, hormones are one of the life-saving drugs, but the side effects of hormones are often painful. In Otolaryngology, acute epiglottitis, laryngeal edema, peritonsillar abscess, sudden deafness, vertigo, otitis media, rhinitis, sinusitis and nasal polyps and other diseases are need to use hormone, hormone play in the efficacy and possible side effects, therefore, to master the use of bowel adaptation quality disease, dose and method of use (reduction), antagonistic with drug side effects, it is very important.
The pharmacological effects of glucocorticoids can be briefly summarized as "four resistance to the three line". The "four anti" means: anti immune function anti shock effect and the effect of the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug. "Three lines" refers to: the role of blood and hematopoietic system: glucocorticoids can stimulate the hematopoietic function of bone marrow, the red blood cell and hemoglobin content increased, large dosage can cause thrombocytosis and increase the fibrinogen concentration, shorten the coagulation time; the neutrophil count increased, but decreased the migration and phagocytosis function; also can make the blood lymphocyte, basophils and eosinophils reduced. The role of the central nervous system: can improve the excitability of the central nervous system, the emergence of euphoria, excitement, insomnia, etc.. The digestive system function: it can make gastric acid and pepsin secretion, increase appetite, promote digestion.
A small dose of short-term use of corticosteroids, has no side effect, but too large, long-term high-dose corticosteroids may cause the following adverse reactions: type of adrenocortical insufficiency syndrome, such as edema, hypokalemia, hypertension, diabetes, skin thinning, moon face, buffalo back, central obesity, hirsutism, acne, weakness and muscle atrophy and other symptoms, generally do not need special treatment, after stopping drug can fade. But the slow and incomplete recovery. Low salt, low sugar, high protein diet, potassium chloride and other measures to reduce these symptoms. Inducing or aggravating infection. Glucocorticoid inhibits the immune function, the resurgence of the latent infection foci of infection spread or static, especially the decrease in the original resistance. Induce or aggravate digestive system complications. Glucocorticoid can stimulate the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and inhibition of gastric mucus secretion, reduce gastric mucosal resistance, it can induce or aggravate the peptic ulcer. The cardiovascular system complications. Long term use of glucocorticoids can lead to sodium, water retention and elevated blood lipids, induced hypertension and atherosclerosis. The osteoporosis and bone necrosis. Glucocorticoids can inhibit the activity of osteoblasts, increase the excretion of calcium and phosphorus, inhibit the absorption of calcium in the intestine and increase the sensitivity of bone cells to parathyroid hormone. The wound healing is slow, because the synthetic glucocorticoid inhibition of protein. Can the negative nitrogen balance caused by inhibition of growth hormone secretion in children, so that affected the growth and development. The induced neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Such as euphoria, neuroticism, excitement, insomnia, emotional change, even had significant psychiatric symptoms. 9 induced seizures; induced glaucoma and cataract. Pregnant women even teratogenic.
Withdrawal reaction: drug induced adrenal insufficiency. Long term use of corticosteroids, if suddenly stopped, will produce joint pain, muscle pain, fatigue, depression, etc., which is a withdrawal syndrome. Rebound phenomenon. Long term use of corticosteroids, if the reduction is too large or sudden withdrawal, the original symptoms can be very rapid recurrence or aggravation, which is a rebound phenomenon.